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Expert Pearls

Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) - endothelial dysfunction, lifestyle - 51070

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a result of lifestyle factors that result in disordered functioning of endothelium (ED) in the vessels supplying the affected ocular structures with blood (choroidalneovascularization [CNV]). AMD is a local manifestation of systemic vascular disease. Treatment includes lifestyle modification by AMD-patients: (1) smoking cessation; (2) reduction of body weight (slimming); (3) regular, appropriate physical activity; (4) prescribing a low glycemic, phytochemically rich diet which includes: (a) flavonoids, (b) polyphenols (c) omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid); (d) carotenoids (lutein and zeaxanthin); (e) management of dietary glycemic index (GI); (5) caloric restriction (CR); (6) elimination/discontinuance of the stressful lifestyle. Orv Hetil. 2015 Jul 12;156(28):1128-32. 51070 (12/2015) Interview PubMed

Age Related Macular Degeneration - acetyl-carnitine - 43591/43893

Acetyl-carnitine 100 mg/d. Ophthalmologica May-June 2005 219 3 154-66 43591/43893 11/2005 Summary Interview PubMed

Age Related Macular Degeneration - cardiovascular disease, infection, zinc - 50683

Zinc at 45 mg of elemental zinc daily as acetate or gluconate administered in the post absorptive state (2-3 h after dinner) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk. Zinc has been shown to be deficient in 30% of some elderly populations and has shown therapeutic value in slowing age-related macular degeneration, cardiovascular risk markers and infections. Doses of elemental zinc of 50 mg or more should be taken with 1 mg of copper. Serum levels of zinc are the most clinically efficient way to assess for zinc status. [J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2014 Oct;28(4):364-371. 50683 (2/2015)] Interview PubMed

Age Related Macular Degeneration - carotenoid - 45466

Carotenoid 21.8 mg/d (14.9 mg of meso-zeaxanthin, 5.5 mg of lutein and 1.4 mg of zeaxanthin) increased macular pigment optical density. Nutr Metab (Lond), 2007 4 12 45466 9/2007 Summary Interview PubMed

Age Related Macular Degeneration - coenzyme Q10 - 43591/43893

Coenzyme Q10 10 mg/d (along with acetyl-l-carnitine 100 mg and omega-3 fatty acid 500 mg from fish oil). Ophthalmologica May-Jun 2005 219 3 154-66 43591/43893 11/2005 Summary Interview PubMed

Age Related Macular Degeneration - diet - 44227/45481/45762/44790

Diet - Low glycemic index (low in refined carbohydrates), high in fruit and vegetables reduces risk; high glycemic index diet increases risk. Am J Clin Nutr, Apr 2006 83 4 880-886 44227;45481;45762/44790 7/2006 Summary Interview PubMed

Age Related Macular Degeneration - egg yolk - 47554

Egg yolks 2-4/d increased macular pigment optical density (MPOD). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2009; 90(5): 1272-9. 47554 (12/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Age Related Macular Degeneration - eggs - 44828

Eggs - 6 per week for 12 weeks increased zeaxanthin and macular pigment optical density (MPOD). J Nutr, 2006 136 10 2568-73 44828 5/2007 Summary Interview PubMed

Age Related Macular Degeneration - lutein - 26771

Lutein supplementation can increase serum levels by 15 times and in macular pigment by 40%. Lutein converts to zeaxanthin in the retina. Advances in Pharmacology 1997 38 38 537-553 26771 1997 Summary Interview PubMed

Age Related Macular Degeneration - omega-3 fatty acids - 43591/43893

Omega-3 fatty acids 500mg/d. (750 mg fish oil with n-3 concentration of 60%). Ophthalmologica May-Jun 2005 219 3 154-66 43591/43893 11/2005 Summary Interview PubMed
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