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Expert Pearls

Hypertension - acetyl-l-carnitine - 47473

Acetyl-L-carnitine - 1 gram B.I.D. on empty stomach before breakfast and 2 hours after dinner. [Hypertension 2009; 54(3): 462-4. 47473 (11/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - beetroot juice - 47417

Beetroot juice 500 ml sipped throughout the day. [J Appl Physiol, August 6, 2009; [Epub ahead of print]. 47417 (10/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - berries - 46352

Berries 1 cup/d (black currants, bilberries, lingonberries and chokeberries, a small amounts of strawberries and raspberries). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2008 Feb;87(2):323-31. 46352 (3/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - bovine casein hydrolysate - 45821

Bovine casein hydrolysate (C12 peptide) 1.9 mg (3 tablets) b.i.d. before breakfast and after dinner reduced blood pressure, plasma angiotensin II and aldosterone. [Am J Hypertens, 2007 Jan; 20(1):1-5. 45821 (3/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - caffeine - 27049

Caffeine intake daily increases blood pressure 2 to 4 mm Hg. [The Lancet, 1997; 349:279-281. 27049 (1997)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - cardiovascular disease, gazpacho soup - 50876

Gazpacho soup (GS) consumption in individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP and prevalence of hypertension. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Oct;23(10):944-52. 50876 (7/2015)] Interview PubMed

Hypertension - catechins, cholesterol, green tea - 50875

Green tea at 5-6 cups per day (approximately 200 mg of green tea catechins) caused significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, total and LDL cholesterol, and the effects were greater with longer duration of consumption. Side effects were minimal but increased in trials above 200 mg green tea catechins. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Aug;24(8):823-36. 50875 (7/2015)] Interview PubMed

Hypertension - chocolate (dark) - 42904

Chocolate (dark) 100 mg/d (=500 mg polyphenols) reduced systolic BP. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2005;81:611-614. 42904 (04/2005)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - coenzyme Q10 - 38689

Coenzyme Q10 60 mg b.i.d. (mean plasma CoQ10 levels increased from about 0.47 mcg/ml to about 2.69 ug/ml with lowering of blood pressure). [S Med J, Nov. 2001;94(11):1112-1116. 38689 (2002)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - dairy products - 23022

Dairy products (low-fat; calcium and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides). [Archives of Family Medicine, August 1995;4(8):707-713. 23022 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - dairy products - 44178

Dairy products (low-fat; calcium and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory peptides). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2005 Nov;82(5):972-9. 44178 (12/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - dark chocoloate, flavonoids, green tea, red apple - 50873

Dietary flavonoids (DF) consisting of dark chocolate, dehydrated red apple and green tea in an infusion at a daily dose of 426 mg epicatechin equivalents from: dark chocolate administrated in dotes (2 grams per dote) for a total dose of 30 gm/day taken during the day and before 17:00 hrs; green tea given in bags (2 grams per bag) for a total dose of 4 grams per day in two drinks (2 grams per drink) one before midday and the second before 17 hours; and dried red apple consumed as a snack when patients decided to eat it during the day reduced blood pressure, lipids and inflammation in hypertensive subjects. [Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014 Dec 1.. [Epub ahead of print] 50873 (8/2015)] Interview PubMed

Hypertension - DASH diet - 27062

Diet - DASH diet - COMB - fruit and vegetable consumption was 4 to 5 half-cup servings of each per day and total fat was 25% of the calories - reduced average blood pressure by 5.5 mm Hg, systolic and 3.0 mm Hg, diastolic. [NEJM, April 17, 1997;336:117-24. 27062 (1997)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - diet - 44436

Diet - increased cereal fiber and vegetable protein. [Arch Med Res, 2006;37(6) :778-86. 44436 (8/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - dietary acid load, fruit, vegetable - 50205

Dietary Acid Load (DAL) – a higher DAL was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in healthy children while a higher 11BHSD2-activity was significantly related to lower systolic blood pressure which was associated with a reduced DAL and increased fruits and vegetables. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2013 Mar;97(3):612-20. 50205 (5/2013)] Interview PubMed

Hypertension - exercise - 23022

Exercise. [Arch Family Med, August 1995;4:707-713. 23022 (1996)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - flaxseed, lignans - 50845

Flaxseed taken as supplement in the form of flax oil 1.2 to 6.6 grams per day, flax lignans 360 and 600 mg per day, or ground flaxseed 360 and 600 mg per day may moderate systolic and diastolic blood pressure while ground flaxseed had the most significant blood pressure lowering effect. [J. Nutr. 2015 145: 758-765 50845 (6/2015)] Interview PubMed

Hypertension - folic acid - 40185

Folic acid 5 mg/d (lowered BP in smokers). [ J Intern Med, 2002;252:497-503. 40185 (2003)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - functional foods - 49152

Function foods resulting in low glycemic meals (antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish for omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic). Risk factors reduced were plasma levels of blood lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides), lipoprotein fractions and CRP, and a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure. [Nutr Metab (Lond), 2012 April 2;9(1):29. 49152 (5/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - garlic - 46837

Garlic powder 300 mg t.i.d. reduced BP > 140 systolic 16/9 mmHg. [Ann Pharmacother, 2008 Nov 18; [Epub ahead of print]. 46837 . (1/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - garlic - 48168

Aged garlic extract (AGE) in four capsules equaling a daily dose of 960 mg containing 2.4 mg S-allylcysteine with meals and in divided doses if desired. [Maturitas, 2010;67:144-150 48168 (11/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - garlic powder - 46837

Garlic powder 300 mg t.i.d. reduced BP > 140 systolic 16/9 mmHg. [Ann Pharmacother, 2008 Nov 18; [Epub ahead of print]. 46837 (1/2009)]. Summary

Hypertension - grape - 49322

Grape powder (46 grams freezed-dried; equivalent to 252 grams of fresh grapes - 1 ½ cups). [J Nutr, 2012 Sep;142(9):1626-32. 49322 (9/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - hibiscus sabdariffa (sour tea) - 46873

Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Sour Tea) tea infusions b.i.d. [J Hum Hypertens, 2008 Aug 7; [Epub ahead of print]. 46873 (4/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - hibiscus sabdariffa tea - 47730

Hibiscus Sabdariffa tea brewed from 1.25 g of dried Hibiscus sadbariffa calyces in one 8 ounce cup (240 mL) of boiled water for 6 minutes consumed 3 times daily hot or cold which can be prepared ahead of time, but should be consumed within 12 hours of preparation. [J Nutr, 2010;140(2):298-303. 47730 (3/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - lifestyle program - 39391 / 43952

Lifestyle Program - DASH II diet or low carbohydrate Mediterranean diet (DASH II diet; 10 servings of fruits, vegetables and whole grains per day; fish 3x per week; lean and low fat meats; increase omega 3 fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids; avoid trans fats in diet; reduce sodium; increase potassium and magnesium; limit alcohol; avoid all tobacco; and limit caffeine); aerobic exercise; weight loss; stress management and nutraceuticals/supplements: CoQ10 60-120 mg/d (antioxidant, free-radical scavenger, ATP production, improve insulin sensitivity); omega 3 FA 30% 3-4 gm/d (anti-inflammatory, anti-arrhythmic, anti-platelet, vasodilatory, lowers fibrinogen); bonita protein 1.5 to 3 grams (ACEI, natriuresis); vitamin B6 100-200 mg/d (improves insulin sensitivity, actions like central alpha agonists, calcium channel blockers, diuretics); hydrolyzed whey protein 30 gm/d (ACEI, natriuresis); R lipoic Acid 200-400 mg/d (increase glutathione, binds aldehydes, normalizes calcium channels, improve insulin sensitivity, increases nitric oxide, improves endothelial function); taurine 2-3 gm/d (diuretic, increased sodium loss, vasodilation, improved insulin sensitivity, increased atrial natriuretic factor); arginine 5-10 gm/day (nitric oxide production, improves endothelial function and insulin sensitivity, regulates cellular Ca2+, Na+, K+); magnesium chelate 500-1000 mg/d (vasodilation, calcium channel blocker); Pycnogenol™ 200 mg/day (ACEI). [Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 May-Jun;47(6):396-449. 39391/43952 (11/2005)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - lupin kernel flour - 47008

Lupin kernel flour replacement of 40% of the white, refined flour (higher in protein and fiber) in white bread lowered blood  pressure. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2009;89(3):766-772. 47008 (5/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - lyc-o-mato® - 46919

Lyc-O-Mato® 250 mg capsule (15 mg lycopene (6%), β-carotene (0.15%), phytoene and phytofluene (1%) and 5 mg vitamin E (2%), phospholipids (15%) and phytosterol (0.6%) suspended in tomato oleoresin oil;. 15 mg of lycopene ingested can increase serum levels of lycopene of 1 microgram) with main meal. [Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, 2008 Dec 4; [Epub ahead of print]. 46919 (3/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - magnesium - 30585

Magnesium oxide 400 mg b.i.d.. [Hypertension, August 1998;32:260-265. 30585 (1998)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - magnesium oxide - 47206

Magnesium oxide - 300 mg per day of elemental magnesium in divided doses. [Nutr Metab Cardiovas Dis, 2009 April 7;[Epub ahead of print]. 47206 (8/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - melatonin - 32203B / 32203

Melatonin 1 mg/d between 2:30 and 5:30 p.m. on two consecutive days lowered blood pressure. [Am J Cardiol, May 1, 1999;83:1417-1418. 32203B/32203 (1999) Summary Interview

Hypertension - myo-Inositol - 44653 / 46297

Myo-Inositol 18 gm/d (reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures by an average of 10 mm Hg). [Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2006 Aug;15(8):1526-31. 44653/46297 (11/2006)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - olive leaf extract - 46631

Olive Leaf Extract, Benolea® (EFLA®943) at 500 mg b.i.d. with meals. [Phytother Res, 2008 Aug; 22(9): 1239-1242. 46631 (9/2008)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - omega-3 fatty acids - 24138 / 24131

Omega-3 fatty acids 4 gm/d (EPA/DHA) reduced systolic BP 3.8 mm Hg and diastolic BP 2.0 mm Hg > than controls. [Ann Internal Med, December,1995;123(12):911-918. 24138/24131 (1996)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - omega-3 fatty acids - 46407

Omega-3 fatty acids (2 g/d DHA and 3 g/d EPA, fish oil) in 3 divided doses with meals increased stroke volume and cardiac output. [Eur J Appl Physiol, 2008 June 18; [Epub ahead of print]. 46407 (8/2008)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - omega-3 fatty acids - 47890

Two grams per day of purified EPA and DHA (not less than 85%) in a 1:1 ratio given as 1 gram with the two main meals significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse pressure and basal heart rate. [Clin Exp Hypertens, 2010; 32(2): 137-44. 47890 (5/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - partnership - 44274

Partnership - good partnership reduces blood pressure and loneliness increases blood pressure. [Psychol Aging, 2006;21(1):152-64. 44274 (6/2006)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - pet therapy/ownership - 23982

Pet therapy/ownership in elderly patients. [Am J Occupat Therapy, Jan. 1996; 50(1):47-51. 23982 (1997)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - phytoestrogens, soy protein - 48527

Soy protein concentrate 30 gms (70% proteins) containing 16 mg of phytoestrogens (54% genistein, 35% daidzein, and 12% glycitein) reduced blood pressure, HS C-reactive protein and insulin resistance and triggered overt hypothyroidism in subclinical hypothyroid patients. [ J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2011 Feb 16; [Epub ahead of print]. 48527] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - quercetin - 45787

Quercetin 365 mg 2 per day with meals. [J Nutr, 2007; 137(11): 2405-11. 45787 (1/2008)] Summary

Hypertension - sodium chloride - 23022

Sodium chloride limited to 6 g/d or 100 mmol of sodium = 1 teaspoon of salt. [Arch Family Med, August 1995;4:707-713. 23022 (1996)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - soy protein - 45256

Soy protein - 25 gm of soy nuts (½ cup = 101 mg of aglycone isoflanvones). [Arch Int Med, 2007;167:1060-1067; J Womens Health (Larchmt), 2007;16(3): 361-9. 45256 (1/2008)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - transcendental meditation - 44410 / 45012

Transcendental Meditation (TM) 2 x per day for 20 minutes each session reduced blood pressure, blood sugar, blood insulin, insulin resistance and heart rate variability improved. [Arch Intern Med, 2006 Jun 12;166(11):1218-24. 44410/45012 (10/2006)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - vegetarian diets - 49219

Vegetarians have lower : all cause mortality; ischemic heart disease (IHD) ; mortality from circulatory diseases; mortality from cerebrovascular disease; significantly lower cancer incidence than nonvegetarians. Vegetarians have reduced cardiovascular risk factors compared with omnivores including: decreased body mass index; waist to hip ratio; blood pressure; plasma total cholesterol (TC); triglycerides; LDL-C levels; serum lipoprotein(a); plasma factor VII activity; the ratio of TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TAG/HDL-C, and serum ferritin levels. [Ann Nutr Metab, 2012 Jun 1;60(4):233-240. 49219 (7/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - vitamin B6 - 38689

Vitamin B6 200-400 mg/d. [S Med J, Nov. 2001;94(11):1112-1116. 38689 (2002)] Summary Interview

Hypertension - vitamin c - 49149

Vitamin C, which may act as a diuretic, and stimulates nitric oxide was observed in a meta-analysis of supplementation trials with a median dose of 500 mg/d of vitamin C to reduce blood pressure. The affect was greater in those with higher blood pressure. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2012 April 4; [Epub ahead of print]. 49149 (5/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - vitamin c - 50113

Vitamin C 3 grams IV over 3 minutes induced a significant reduction in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. [ Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Aug;96(2):302-8. Epub 2012 Jun 13. 50113 (10/2012)] Interview PubMed

Hypertension - watermelon - 48080

Two grams twice daily of watermelon extract with a citrulline:arginine ratio of 2:1 ratio (2.7 g of L-citrulline and 1.3 g of L-arginine) ingested 1 hour before or after meals showed a reduction in aortic blood pressure (BP). [Am J Hypertens, 2010 July 8; [Epub ahead of print]. 48080 (08/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Hypertension - weight loss - 23022

Weight loss. [Archives of Family Medicine, August 1995;4:707-713. 23022 (1996)] Summary Interview
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