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Expert Pearls

Myocardial Infarction - adiponectin, e-selectin, hdl, hesperidin - 50850

Hesperidin 600 mg with breakfast in myocardial infarction patients significantly decreased the serum levels of E-selectin and increased adiponectin and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Minimal side effects were noted. [J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 May-Jun;34(3):205-11. 50850 (7/2015)] Interview PubMed

Myocardial Infarction - Allergy

Allergy, including from food, may trigger a myocardial infarction. Elimination diets may be beneficial. [Circulation, October 1, 1996;94(7):1789. 25923 (1996)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - Antioxidant rich diet

Antioxidant rich diet containing more fruits, vegetable soup, pulses, and crushed almonds and walnuts mixed with skim milk reduced plasma lipid peroxides and lactate dehydrogenase cardiac enzyme levels and increase in plasma ascorbic acid levels. [J Am Diet Assoc, July 1995;95(7):775-780. 22791 (1995)] Summary

Myocardial Infarction - Antioxidants

Antioxidants - vitamin A 50,000 mg/d and vitamin C 1000 mg/d intravenously with glucose for three days followed by oral therapy with vitamins A 50,000 IU/d, vitamin C 1,000 mg/d, vitamin E 400 mg/d and beta-carotene 25 mg/d for a total period of 28 days resulted in a reduction of serum lipid peroxides, angina pectoris, total arrhythmias and poor left ventricular function occurred less often in the antioxidant group. Cardiac end points were significantly less in the antioxidant group. [Am J Cardiol, September 15, 1996;80(6):823-824. 28303 (1998)] Summary

Myocardial Infarction - antioxidants, diet - 50156

An increase in the antioxidant capacity of the diet from fruit, vegetables, whole grains and coffee showed a 20% reduction in myocardial infarction risk in the females studied when comparing the highest category of antioxidant intake to the lowest. [Am J Med. 2012 Oct;125(10):974-80. 50156 (1/2013)] Interview PubMed

Myocardial Infarction - arginine - 48300

Arginine 3 grams per day with breakfast. [Oxid Med Cell Lonvev, 2009 Sept-Oct;2(4):231-7. 48300 (1/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Myocardial Infarction - Carnitine

Carnitine (-L) 2gm/d x 28 days post acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mean infarct size, lipid peroxides, angina pectoris, heart failure, arrhythmias and cardiac events were reduced. [Postgraduate Med J, 1995;71. 23771 (1995)] Summary

Myocardial Infarction - Carnitine - 2

Carnitine (-L) 5 gms I.V. bolus followed by 10 g/d I.V. [Cardiovasc Drugs Ther, 2007 Dec;21(6):445-8. 46245 (4/2008)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - carnitine - 50375

L-carnitine intravenously or orally between 2 and 14 grams daily on an empty stomach in divided doses, usually twice daily. [Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2014;15(1):52-62. 50375 (7/2014)] Interview PubMed

Myocardial Infarction - Cod liver oil

Cod liver oil 10 ml/d (i.e. approximately 0.95 g EPA and 0.80 g DHA) at least 4 weeks prior to admission reduced infarct size. [Cardiology, 1998;89:94-102. 29488 (1998)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - Fish oil

Fish oil 5.2 gm/d increased heart rate variability in post-MI patients. [BMJ, 1996; 312:677-678. 24470 (1996)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - Fish oil capsules

Fish oil capsules 2-3/d (i.e. approximately 0.70 to 1.10 g EPA and 0.50 to 0.75 g DHA) at least 4 weeks prior to admission reduced infarct size. [Cardiology, 1998;89:94-102. 29488 (1998)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - Fish oil capsules - 2

Fish oil capsules (1.08 g/day of EPA) and mustard oil (2.9 g/day of ALA) significantly reduced total cardiac events, nonfatal infarctions, total cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris and left ventricular enlargement. [Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, 1997;11:485-491. 28928 (1998)] Summary

Myocardial Infarction - Flavonoid

Flavonoid (kaempferol and luteolin) intake lowered risk. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Jun;15(3):188-97. 43761 (10/2005)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - Homocysteine

Homocysteine elevated; lower serum vitamin B12, folic acid and pyridoxal phosphate. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Apr;15(2):100-8. Epub 2005 Apr 14. 43604/43580 (10/2005)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - Homocysteinemia/homocystinuria

Homocysteinemia/homocystinuria is a risk factor. [NEJM, February 2, 1995;332(5):328-329. 21740 (1996)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - Iron

Iron low in serum is predictive. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Jun;15(3): 188-97. 43761 (10/2005)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - Magnesium

Magnesium content of water was inversely related to risk of myocardial infarction. [Am J Epidemiol, 1996;143(5):456-462. 24427 (1997)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - Magnesium retention

Magnesium retention (magnesium load test) was considerably greater in both acute and subacute phases post MI. [Jpn Circ J, 2001;65:643-648. 38179 (2001)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - mediterranean diet - 48965

Diet - Mediterranean-style diet, defined as a diet with a high intake of fruits, vegetables, monounsaturated fat, fish, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, moderate alcohol consumption, and a low intake of red meat, saturated fat, and refined grains, was associated with a decreased risk of having a vascular event. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2011 Dec;94(6):1458-64 48965 (01/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Myocardial Infarction - methylmercury, omega-3 fatty acids - 49376 / 50138

Myocardial infarction risk is associated with higher methylmercury (MM) and lower omega-3 fatty acids blood levels. No adverse health effects are seen with MM until levels are high with concurrent low levels of omega-3 fatty acids. To lower MI risk eat fish high in omega-3 fatty acids and low in MM which are the smaller non-predatory fish: salmon, sardines, herring, northern Atlantic mackerel and trout; and reduce species with high levels of MM which are larger predatory fish species; pike, perch, pike-perch, king mackerel, big tuna (not the canned ones though), shark, ray, swordfish, halibut and burbot. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct;96(4):706-13. Epub 2012 Aug 15. 49376 / 50138 (10/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Myocardial Infarction - MgSO4

MgSO4 32 mmols (16g) prior to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) - a bolus injection of 8 mmol followed by a continuous infusion of 24 mmol over 24h. [Circ J, January 2004;68:23-28. 41452 (2004)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - MgSO4 - 2

MgSO4 intravenously injected at a dose of 0.27 mmol/kg within 1 hour before the start of interventional treatment (0.27 mmol/kg of MgSO4 = 0.066 g/kg). [Angiology, July, 1999;50(7):573-582. 33171 (2000)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - MgSO4 - 3

MgSO4 2-4 gms intravenously over 20 to 60 minutes. [Internat J Cardiol, 1999; 68:133-135. 32189 (1999)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - MgSO4 - 4

MgSO4 22 gms (92 mmol/L) dissolved in a half liter of isotonic glucose during the first 48 hours, adjusted to 6 gms (25 mmol) of MgSO4 during the first 3 hours; thereafter 10 gms (42 mmol) during the next 21 hours; and 6 gms (25 mmol) during the last 24 hours reduced arrhythmias, conduction disturbances, congestive heart failure, in-hospital mortality, cardiogenic shock and improved left ventricular ejection fraction. [Coronary Artery Disease, 1996;7:352-358 / Magnesium Bulletin, 1995;17(3):104;75-78. 26230 (1997)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - MgSO4 - 5

MgSO4 50 to 60 mM during the first 24 hours followed by 10 to 20 mM of magnesium per day for the next 4 to 5 days. [Am J Cardiol, July 15, 1995;76:172-174. 22865 (1995)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - MgSO4 - 6

MgSO4 benefit is questionable. If given the earlier the better. [Cardiovascular Research, 1995;29:439. 22164 (1995)] Summary Interview

Myocardial Infarction - omega-3 fatty acids, ala, dha, epa - 49048

Omega 3 Fatty Acids - 400 mg/d of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 2 g of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in margarine spread on bread showed in non-statin users a reduction in major cardiovascular events by 54%. [Eur Heart J, 2012 Feb 1; [Epub ahead of print]. 49048 (3/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Myocardial Infarction - Pet ownership

Pet ownership, dogs in particular, were associated with an increased likelihood of 1 year survival of an individual who had ventricular arrhythmias after a myocardial infarction. [Am J Cardiol, 1995;76:1213-1217. 23986 (1997)] Summary Interview
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