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Expert Pearls

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Calcium

Calcium 1000 mg/d (carbonate or citrate malate) and/or dairy products and gonadal hormones (testosterone - male, estrogen - female). [Am J Clin Nutr, 1994;60:831-6. 21448 (1996)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Essentially fatty acids

Essentially fatty acids - eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA from fish oil) and gamma linolenic acid (GLA from evening primrose oil) combination 4 to 10 gm/d. [Nutrition, 2000;16:386-390. 35522 (2000)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Genistein

Genistein 54 mg/d in divided doses irregardless of meals increased BMD at 24 months. [Ann Intern Med, 2007; 146(12): 839-47. 45456 (9/2008)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Melatonin

Melatonin may have benefit. [Developmental Medicine Child Neurology, 2004; 46:776-782. 42513 (02/2005)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Premature graying

Premature graying subjects were 4½ times more likely to have osteoporosis. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1994;79(3):854-857. 21006 (1996)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Sodium

Sodium - reducing the average sodium intake to levels of 70 mmol/d lowers urinary calcium excretion and cuts the dietary calcium requirements and reduces the risk of osteoporosis. [Am J Clin Nutr, 1996;63:735-40. 24770 (1997)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Tai Chi

Tai Chi 45 min/day, 5 d/week for 12 months. [Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 717-22. 41745 (2004)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Vitamin D2

Vitamin D2 125-250 ug/day (5,000 IU-10,000 IU/day) > 50% achieved adequate 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2006 May;60(5):681-7. 44369/44964 (8/2006)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Vitamin K2

Vitamin K2 45 mg/d sustained vertebral BMD and reduced new fractures. [J Bone Mineral Res, 2000;15:515-521. 35612 (2000)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis - calcium, copper, magnesium, vitamin D, zinc - 51010

Calcium 1000-1200 mg/d (major mineral in bone); copper 0.2-1.3 mg/day (collagen formation); magnesium 310-400 mg/day (crystallization of bone, vitamin D metabolism), and zinc 8-11 mg/day (enzymes for collagen and mineralization of bone) are all needed for healthy bones. [Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2015 Jan-Apr; 12(1): 18–21. 51010 (11/2015)] Interview PubMed

Osteoporosis - carotenoids, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin - 50216

Higher serum levels of carotenoids, specifically β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene, in post-menopausal were inversely related to osteoporosis in later years. β-carotene exists in abundance in green and yellow vegetables. β-cryptoxanthin is especially high in Japanese mandarin oranges (Satsuma mandarin). [ PLoS One, 2012;7(12):e52643. 50216 (8/2013)] Interview PubMed

Osteoporosis - vitamin e - 50300

Low vitamin E intake and serum levels in elderly women were associated with increased fracture risk. Low intakes of vitamin E were associated with higher risk of low bone mass/osteoporosis and low muscle mass/sarcopenia. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 January;99(1):107–114. 50300 (2/2014)] Interview PubMed
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