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Expert Pearls

Breast Feeding - Anti-infective factors

Anti-infective factors are in breastmilk (i.e. lysozymes, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, nucleotides). [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 20842/20482 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis risk as an adult may be lowered by being breast fed as a child. [Am J Prev Med, 1995;11:26-33. 21844 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - dha, docosahexaenoic acid - 48916

DHA 400 mg/day (each softgel capsule containing 100 mg DHA) taken from the twelfth week of gestation and continued until the end of the fourth post-partum month in breast-feeding women improved cytotoxicity and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators in infants. [Mediators Inflamm. 2011;2011:493925 48916 (12/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus - being exclusively breast-fed for at least two months reduced risk to diabetes in Pima Indians by 50% compared to those not breast-fed. [The Lancet, July 19, 1997;350:166-168. 27905 (1997)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Duration

Duration - optimal practice is 6 months of exclusive breast feeding (World Health Organization). Current recommendation is 4 to 6 months of exclusive breast feeding. Gradual introduction of solid foods at 4 to 6 months - not for nutrition but for the baby to start learning how use muscles to chew the food. Continued breast feeding for a minimum of two years (World Health Organization). American Academy of Pediatrics says a minimum of one year. Worldwide, the average age at weaning is 4.2 years. [Am J Prev Med, 1995;11:26-33. 21844 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Ear infections

Ear infections - the more a baby is exclusively breast fed in the first 6 months, the greater the protection against ear infections. [Am J Prev Med, 1995;11:26-33. 21844 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Infections

Infections - protection against ear infections and urinary tract infections persists for a significant period of time beyond the time that breast feeding stops. [Am J Prev Med, 1995;11:26-33. 21844 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Infections - 2

Infections - reduced diarrhea and respiratory infections. [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 20842/20482 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Microwaving frozen breast milk

Microwaving frozen breast milk can reduce anti-infective factors. [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 20842/20482 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Premature infants

Premature infants - mature breast milk may not be optimal nutrition for the premature infant. Ideal would be to take human breast milk and remove some of the water, concentrating the components including calcium, protein and all the anti-infective factors and give that to the premature infant. [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 20842/20482 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Toxins

Toxins - Breast milk contamination from PCBs and dioxins derived from animal fats in foods, especially fish and dairy products, may cause subclinical symptoms in babies of mothers with high levels of PCBs and dioxins including immunosuppression, abnormal neurologic development and thyroid hormone dysregulation, and possibly problems with reproduction and cancer in the future. The toxic limit in breast milk is 80 pg TEQ/gr milk fat. Fish are polluted by manufacturers who dump chemicals into the rivers polluting lakes and the sea. Milk is contaminated by waste incinerators. [Eur J Obst Gynecol Repro Biol, 1995;61:73-78. 23706 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Vitamin D

Vitamin D 6000 IU/d during lactation is safe and provides up to 500 IU of vitamin D to the infant. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2004;80(suppl):1752S-1758S. 42457 (01/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Water

Water addition to breast milk does not reduce anti-infective factors. [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 20842/20482 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed
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