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Expert Pearls

Cardiovascular Diseae - gazpacho soup, hypertension - 50876

Gazpacho soup (GS) consumption in individuals at high risk for cardiovascular disease was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic BP and prevalence of hypertension. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Oct;23(10):944-52. 50876 (7/2015)] Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Diseae - menaquinone-7, vitamin k2 - 50719

Menaquinone-7 (MK-7, vitamin K2) at 180 mcg per day in a single dose with the main meal, by stimulating the activation (carboxylation) of MGP (matrix Gla-protein), the strongest inhibitor of soft tissue calcification known that is synthesized in the blood vessel wall, improved vascular elasticity and induced regression of prevalent arterial calcifications and stiffness. The most prominent effect of vitamin K2 occurred in those with the highest degree of artery stiffening. [Thromb Haemostas, 2015 Feb 19;113(5) [Epub ahead of print] 50719 (3/2015)] Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Diseaes - infections, cardiovascular disease, macular degeneration, zinc -

Zinc at 45 mg of elemental zinc daily as acetate or gluconate administered in the post absorptive state (2-3 h after dinner) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk. Zinc has been shown to be deficient in 30% of some elderly populations and has shown therapeutic value in slowing age-related macular degeneration, cardiovascular risk markers and infections. Doses of elemental zinc of 50 mg or more should be taken with 1 mg of copper. Serum levels of zinc are the most clinically efficient way to assess for zinc status. [J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2014 Oct;28(4):364-371. 50683 (2/2015)] Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - alpha-linolenic acid - 42396

Alpha-linolenic acid 8 g/d reduced inflammatory markers (serum amyloid, CRP, MCSF and IL-6). [Br J Nutr, 2004;92:649-655. 42396 (02/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - cardiovascular fitness - 33860

Cardiovascular fitness maintenance (aging male) minimum 4 x per week for 1 hour: aerobic effort, maintain a respiratory rate of 25-30 per minute or be able to carry on a conversation. Heat rate monitoring Karvonen formulae: age 70 = 20-21 HR per 10 seconds; age 60 = 21-22 HR per 10 seconds; age 50 = 22-24 HR per 10 seconds; age 40 = 23-25 HR per 10 seconds and age 30 = 24-26 HR per 10 seconds. [Age and Ageing 1999;28:531-536. 33860 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - coenzyme Q10 - 42239

Coenzyme Q10 blood levels 700 – 1400 nmol/L. [Heart Lung Circ, 2003;12 (Suppl):S55-S62. 42239 (3/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - coenzyme Q10 - 42239

Coenzyme Q10 (myocyte energy production) 100 t.i.d.. [Heart Lung Circ, 2003; 12(Suppl):S55-S62. 42239 (3/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - diet - 21749

Diet - reindeer meat high in selenium and oleic acid; fish high in selenium; cereals, margarines, vegetable oils and cereals high in vitamin E; and a low saturated and total fat intake of the Sami (northern Finland) who have high cholesterol but a low incidence of coronary heart disease. [J Intern Med 1995;237: 49-54. 21749 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - diet - 43618

Diet - reduce large predatory fish consumption; reduces mercury intake. [Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Jan;25(1):228-33. Epub 2004 Nov 11. 43618 (10/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - dietary portfolio - 43517

Dietary Portfolio - a diet high in plant sterols (1.0 g/1000 kcal), soy protein (21.4 g/1000 kcal), viscous fibers (9.8 g/1000 kcal) and almonds (14 g/1000 kcal). [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2005;59:851-860. 43517 (9/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - acetyl-l-carnitine - 47473

Acetyl-L-carnitine - 1 gram B.I.D. on empty stomach before breakfast and 2 hours after dinner. [Hypertension 2009; 54(3): 462-4. 47473 (11/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - c-reactive protein - 47014

Fiber (dietary) consumption between 3.3 - 7.8 g/MJ significantly lowered CRP by 25% - 54%. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2009 Feb 18; [Epub ahead of print]. 47014 (5/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - coenzyme Q10, mediterranean diet - 48960

Mediterranean diet plus 200 mg of CoQ10 in a single dose with meals. [J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2011 Oct 20; [Epub ahead of print]. 48960 (12/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - conjugated linoleic acid - 47321

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) at 3.12 gm in 200g /week. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2009 May 25; [Epub ahead of print]. 47321 (8/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - curcumin - 49419

Curcumin (Theracurumin®; Theravalues Corp, Japan), at 150 mg per day divided into 6 capsules (1 capsule contained 25 mg curcumin), 3 capsules after breakfast and 3 after dinner, improved endothelial function. [Nutr Res, 2012 Oct; 32(10): 795-9. 49419 (12/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - D-ribose - 44986/45599

D-Ribose at 5 gms t.i.d. with or without meals for approximately 3 weeks (loading dose) then 5 gms b.i.d. for up to six weeks (can stop if no benefit). [J Altern Complement Med, 2006 Nov;12(9):857-62. 44986/45599 (4/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - erectile dysfunction, nitric oxide - 50099

Exercise 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity daily; 500-1,000 mg of EPA/DHA daily; increased intake of antioxidants (i.e. green tea, dark chocolate, berries, fruits and vegetables, red wine); 500-1,000 mg of vitamin C, and/or 2 capsules of pycnogenol (usual capsules contain 40-60 mg per capsule); folic acid (400 ug per day); avoid excessive alcohol, and decrease fat and sugar intakes; along with pelvic floor exercise can achieve results equal to or better than the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (Cialis, Levitra and Viagra). L-arginine at 5 gms/d has improved ED in some studies. 2-3 gm of L-citrulline will most likely have a similar effect since it is the intracellular source of arginine and about half of the arginine dose is required for similar blood levels. Vegetables are a natural source of nitric oxide. Dr. Meldrum's book about ED (with Joseph C. Gambone, DO, MPH , Marge Morris, M Ed, RD, CDE and Claudia Meldrum) is "Survival of the Firmest" and website http://www.erectile-function.com/. [Am J Cardiol, 2011 Aug 15;108(4):599-606. Epub 2011 May 31. 50099 (5/2012)] Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - exercise - 20476

Exercise (aerobic 60-70% of maximum heart rate) 20-30 minutes at least 4 days per week. Strength training even with same pulse elevation does not equate at all the cardiovascular benefit of aerobic training. [Annals of Medicine, 1994;26:153-154. 20476 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - fibrinogen - 24063

Fibrinogen is a significant risk factor. [Arterio, Thromb, Vasc Biol, Sept, 1995; 15(9):1263-1268. 24063 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - functional foods - 49152

Function foods resulting in low glycemic meals (antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish for omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic). Risk factors reduced were plasma levels of blood lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides), lipoprotein fractions and CRP, and a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure. [Nutr Metab (Lond), 2012 April 2;9(1):29. 49152 (5/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - garlic - 44594

Garlic (standardized and aged) - antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-aggregatory, anti-hypertensive, vasodilatory, lipid lowering, benefit in angina. [J Nutr, 2006 Mar;136(3):736S-40S. 44594 (4/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - garlic - 49298

Garlic - aged garlic extract compound (Kyolic Formula 109) delivering1200 mg of AGE and 120 mg of CoQ10 (4 tablets per day). [Nutrition, 2012 Aug 1; [Epub ahead of print]. 49298 (8/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - glucose-potassium-insulin - 42239

Glucose-Potassium-Insulin (GIK) Therapy (myocardial energy production). [Heart Lung Circ, 2003;12(Suppl): S55-S62. 42239 (3/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - iodine - 44760

Iodine 150 mcg - 290 mcg/d. [J Am Coll Nutr, 2006 Feb;25(1):1-11. 44760 (5/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - isoflavones - 44276

Isoflavones 50 mg/d (genistein-to-daidzein ratio of 2:1). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2005 Dec;82(6):1260-8; quiz 1365-6. 44276 (1/2006)] Summary PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - magnesium orotate- 42239

Magnesium orotate - 400 mg magnesium orotate t.i.d.. [Heart Lung Circ, 2003; 12 (Suppl):S55-S62. 42239 (3/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - mediterranean diet - 23580

Mediterranean diet is rich in antioxidants from fruit, legumes, vegetables (beta-carotene, vitamins C and E) and olive (phenolic compounds; replaces saturated fat with oxidation resistant monounsaturated fat). [Canadian J Cardiol, October, 1995;11 (Suppl. G):105-109. 23580 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - mediterranean diet - 26778

Mediterranean diet is rich in antioxidants from fruit, legumes, vegetables (beta-carotene, vitamins C and E) and olive (phenolic compounds; replaces saturated fat with oxidation resistant monounsaturated fat). [J Am Coll Cardiol, Nov 1, 1996;28(5):1103-8. 26778 (1997)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - mediterranean diet - 31846

Mediterranean diet (rural) rich in monounsaturated fat, low in saturated fat, rich in complexed carbohydrate (pastas) and fiber (beans, vegetables, fruit). [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 1998;8:287-296. 31846 (1999)] Summary Interview

Cardiovascular Disease - mediterranean diet - 48965

Diet - Mediterranean-style diet, defined as a diet with a high intake of fruits, vegetables, monounsaturated fat,fish, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, moderate alcohol consumption, and a low intake of red meat, saturated fat, and refined grains, was associated with a decreased risk of having a vascular event. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2011 Dec;94(6):1458-64 48965 (01/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - melatonin - 35206

Melatonin 6 mg/d between 9 and 10 p.m. reduced LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. [J Pineal Res, 2000;28:136-142. 35206 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - mercury - 43618

Mercury elevation in hair increases CVD events and also attenuates fish oil benefits. [Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Jan;25(1):228-33. Epub 2004 Nov 11. 43618 (10/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - okinawan vegetables - 50145

Vegetables - 169 grams of 371 grams of delivered fresh Okinawan vegetables (Goya (Momordica charantia), green papaya (Carica papaya), Handama (Gynura bicolor), Karashina (Brassica juncea), Njana (Crepidiastrum lanceolatium), Fuchiba (Artemisia vulgaris) and Fudanso (Beta vulgaris)) consumed daily increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and were inversely related to homocysteine and lipids, but positively correlated with both urinary potassium and magnesium excretion and an increase in serum folic acid. [Atherosclerosis, 2009 Jun;204(2): 544-8. Epub 2008 Oct 11. 50145 (12/2012)] Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - omega 3 fatty acid - 46895

Omega-3 fatty acids 1-1.8 gm/d (EPA and DHA). [Chin Med J (Engl), 2008;121(16): 1588-94. 46895 (2/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - omega-3 fatty acid - 43469

Omega-3 fatty acids are adversely effected by fibrate medication. [Nutr, Metab, Cardio Dis, 2005;15:36-41. 43469 (9/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - omega-3 fatty acid - 46407

Omega-3 fatty acids (2 g/d DHA and 3 g/d EPA, fish oil) in 3 divided doses with meals increased stroke volume and cardiac output. [Eur J Appl Physiol, 2008 June 18; [Epub ahead of print]. 46407 (8/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - omega-3 fatty acids, dha, epa - 48773

Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in the range of 540 mg EPA combined with 360 mg DHA daily showed significant reductions in arterial stiffness.
[Am J Clin Nutr, 2011 Feb;93(2):446-54. 48773 (8/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - phytoestrogens, soy protein - 48527

Soy protein concentrate 30 gms (70% proteins) containing 16 mg of phytoestrogens (54% genistein, 35% daidzein, and 12% glycitein) reduced blood pressure, HS C-reactive protein and insulin resistance and triggered overt hypothyroidism in subclinical hypothyroid patients. [ J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2011 Feb 16; [Epub ahead of print]. 48527] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - pomegranate - 46918

Pomegranate juice 50 ml/d or pomegranate polyphenol extract 5 mL/d in a single dose with a meal. [J Agric Food Chem, 2008; 56(18): 8704-13. 46918 (3/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - soy isoflavones - 48773

Soy isoflavones at 112-118 mg/day (and other variations) showed significant reductions in arterial stiffness. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2011 Feb;93(2):446-54. 48773 (8/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - soy protein - 45256

Soy protein - 25 gms of soy nuts (½ cup = 101 mg of aglycone isoflavones). [Arch Int Med, 2007;167:1060-1067; J Womens Health (Larchmt), 2007;16(3): 361-9. 45256 (1/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - strawberries - 49831

Strawberries equaling 500 mg, or approximately 2 cups, were consumed daily for 15 days and significantly reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels (-8.78%, -13.72% and -20.80%, respectively) while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol remained unchanged. Strawberry supplementation also significantly decreased serum malondialdehyde, urinary 8-OHdG and isoprostanes levels (-31.40%, -29.67%, -27.90%, respectively). A significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity was observed after strawberry consumption. Spontaneous and oxidative hemolysis were also significantly reduced (-31.7% and -39.03%, respectively). Strawberry intake also significantly decreased the number of activated platelets. Strawberries consumption improved plasma lipid profiles, biomarkers of antioxidant status, antihemolytic defenses and platelet function in these healthy subjects. [J Nutr Biochem, 2013 Nov 27; [Epub ahead of print]. 49831 (4/2014)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - tea (black) - 45109

Tea (black) - the addition of milk negates the enhancement of nitric oxide and improvement in endothelial function that plain tea provides by milk caseins forming complexes with the protective tea catechins. [Eur Heart J, 2007; 28(2): 219-23. 45109 (6/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - thiamin - 46881

Thiamin 100 mg x 3 daily; one at breakfast, one in the early afternoon and one in the evening in type 2 diabetic patients (21 male, 19 female) showed improvement in kidney function reducing CVD risk. [Diabetologia, 2008 Dec 5; [Epub ahead of print]. 46881 (2/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - tomato juice - 35817

Tomato juice 500 ml/d in type II diabetics decreased LDL oxidation. [Diabetes Care, June, 2000;23(6):733-738. 35817 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - trans fatty acid - 28289

Trans fatty acid reduction by reducing commercially deep-fried food; use a margarine that is trans fatty acid free; avoid partially hydrogenated vegetable oils or "vegetable shortening" as ingredients; avoid confectionary foods if fatty acids not mentioned. [Am J Clin Nutr, 1997;66(Suppl.):1006S-1010S. 28289 (1998)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - trans fatty acid - 28289

Trans fatty acid increase risk to cardiovascular disease by increasing LDL cholesterol similar to saturated fat; reduce HDL cholesterol; increase triglycerides; and possibly increase lipoprotein (a). [Am J Clin Nutr, 1997;66(Suppl.):1006S-1010S. 28289 (1998)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - trans fatty acid - 28289/46212

Trans fatty acid elimination estimated to have similar benefit as putting whole population on statin medications. [Atheroscler Suppl. 2006 May;7(2):5-8. Epub 2006 May 19. 28289/46212 (12/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - vegetarian diet - 49219

Vegetarians have lower: all cause mortality; ischemic heart disease (IHD); mortality from circulatory diseases; mortality from cerebrovascular disease; significantly lower cancer incidence than nonvegetarians. Vegetarians have reduced cardiovascular risk factors compared with omnivores including: decreased body mass index; waist to hip ratio; blood pressure; plasma total cholesterol (TC); triglycerides; LDL-C levels; serum lipoprotein(a); plasma factor VII activity; the ratio of TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TAG/HDL-C, and serum ferritin levels. [Ann Nutr Metab, 2012 Jun 1;60(4):233-240.49219 (7/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - vitamin C - 33975

Vitamin C 2 gm decreased platelet aggregation and the augmentation index (reduced arterial stiffness). [J Cardiovas Pharmacol 1999;34:690-693. 33975 (2000)] Summary PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - vitamin D - 45276

Vitamin D preventive and possibly therapeutic. [Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(20): 2443-7. 45276 (1/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - vitamin D/K - 45276

Vitamins D and K together provide optimal protection against vascular calcification. [Thromb Haemost. 2004 Feb;91(2):373-80. 45276 (9/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - vitamin E - 35817

Vitamin E 800 IU/d in type II diabetics decreased LDL oxidation. [Diabetes Care, June, 2000;23(6):733-738. 35817 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cardiovascular Disease - vitamin E - 45860

Vitamin E 400 IU/d (d-alpha tocopherol) in Hp 2-2 genotype subjects reduce CVD events by half versus placebo. [Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2007 Nov 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 45860 (2/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed
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