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Expert Pearls

Cholesterol Lowering - alpha lipoic acid - 47306

Alpha lipoic acid 400 mg/d. [Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 2009;21(2):198. 47306 (10/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - amla - 46846

Amla (Emblica Officinalis Extract, Amlamax) at 500-1000 mg/d at bedtime with food. [Indian J Clin Biochem, 2008; 23(4): 378-381. 46846 (2/2009)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - anthocyanins - 47395

Anthocyanins 160 mg b.i.d. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2009;90(3):485-92. 47395 (11/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - apoa5 - gene - 50143

Diet - low fat diet (20%) may be more effective in cholesterol lowering in those with the gene polymorphism APOA5 rs964184 with the G allele than those who don't. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2012 Oct; 96(4):917-22. Epub 2012 Aug 22. 50143 (11/2012)] Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - artichoke leaf extract - 46459

Artichoke leaf extract (ALE) 1280 mg/d (four 320 mg capsules of a standardized broad-spectrum aqueous extract (4-6:1) of artichoke leaf, containing at least 2.5% total caffeoylquinic acids and at least 0.1% luteolin-7-O-glucuronide) in divided doses of 320 mg. [Phytomedicine,2008;15(9):668-675. 46459 (9/2008)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - beans, beta glucan, oats, oat bran fiber - 50618

Oat β-glucan (high molecular weight) ≥3 g/d found in high concentrations in oats and oat bran products lowered LDL and total cholesterol. β-glucan is a soluble fiber found in a variety of plant foods such as oats, oat bran and beans. About a cooked cup of these foods gets to the 3 grams per day goal of β-glucan. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;100(6):1413-21. 50618 (1/2015)] Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - cancer - 24021 / 24024

Cancer - cholesterol lowering (fibrates and statins) causes cancer in rodent models. [JAMA, January 3, 1996;275(1):55-60. 24021/24024 (1996)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - carnitine - 44507

Carnitine I.V. at 20 mg/kg/d over 2-3 minutes after end of every hemodialysis treatment session. [Indian J Med Sci, 200; 60(4):143-53. 44507 (10/2006)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - carob fiber - polyphenols - 47793

Four grams of carob fiber containing 84% insoluble polyphenols (Exxenterol®; www.pulevabiotech.es) given twice with meals. [Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 2010 Jan 22; [Epub ahead of print]. 47793 (4/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - catechins, green tea, hypertension - 50875

Green tea at 5-6 cups per day (approximately 200 mg of green tea catechins) caused significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, total and LDL cholesterol, and the effects were greater with longer duration of consumption. Side effects were minimal but increased in trials above 200 mg green tea catechins. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Aug;24(8):823-36. 50875 (7/2015)] Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - coenzyme q10 - 44581

Coenzyme Q10 - with statin use CoQ10 levels should be maintain at least above 2.5 ug/ml and possibly above 3.5 ug/ml. [BioFactors, 2005; 25(1-4): 147-152. 44581 (6/2007)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - combination therapy - 46916

Combination Therapy - Niaspan® 500-1500 mg/d at dinner-time; EPA + DHA mean dose of 1440 mg/d in a divided dose with breakfast and dinner; vitamin D 3590 IU/d (25-hydroxy vitamin D of 50-60 nag/ml) in gel cap form; and the American Heart Association Step II diet with 30% of calories from fat, ≤7% from saturated fat either stopped or reversed calcium scores. The goal was to get LDL < 60, HDL > 60 and triglycerides < 60 with the above approach. There was marked improvement in this program with the addition of vitamin D. [Am J Ther, 2008 Dec 15; [Epub ahead of print]. 46916 (3/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - depression, suicide - 33674

Cholesterol levels naturally low (<5 mmol/l), not pharmacologically reduced, were associated with depression and suicide. [Br J Psychiatry, 1999;175 :259-262. 33674 (2000)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - diet - 46077

Diet - Pritikin Program of a low-fat diet with a good omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids, high in fiber consisting of natural foods, whole grains, fruits and vegetables; 60 minutes of daily aerobic activities as well as stretching and flexibility; and resistance training 3 days per week reduced cholesterol. [Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 2008 Feb 19; [Epub ahead of print]. 46077 (4/2008)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - flax gum - 47282

Flax gum 5 gm per day from 6 wheat chapattis. [Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2009 Jun 22; [Epub ahead of print]. 47282 (9/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - flaxseed - 44228

Flaxseed (ground) 2 tablespoons per day. [Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi, 2005;109(3):502-506. 44228 (9/2006)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - flaxseed - 47387

Flaxseed 30-40 gms (whole and then ground) [Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:288-97. 47387 (7/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - functional foods - 49152

Function foods resulting in low glycemic meals (antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish for omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic). Risk factors reduced were plasma levels of blood lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides), lipoprotein fractions and CRP, and a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure. [Nutr Metab (Lond), 2012 April 2;9(1):29. 49152 (5/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - garlic - 45121

Garlic - one enteric-coated garlic powder tablet (equal to 400 mg garlic, 1 mg allicin) twice daily with meals. [Lipids Health Dis, 2007 Mar 1; [Epub ahead of print]. 45121 (5/2007)] Summary

Cholesterol Lowering - garlic - 46287


Garlic 270 mg (garlic macerate; .27 mg allicin derivative standardized for allicin) in each capsule at 2 capsules t.i.d. with meals.
[Pharmacol Rep, 2008;60(2):163-70. 46287 (8/2008)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - garlic - 49298

Garlic - aged garlic extract compound (Kyolic Formula 109) delivering1200 mg of AGE and 120 mg of CoQ10 (4 tablets per day). [Nutrition, 2012 Aug 1; [Epub ahead of print]. 49298 (8/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - green tea - 46345

Green tea 3 mg (dry leaves 3 g/vol, prepared by brewing for 10 minutes in 500 mL of water containing 145 mg of epigallocatechin-3-gallate [EGCG]) throughout the day plus soy 50 g/d of kinako (31.2 mg of isoflavones) divided between breakfast, lunch and dinner. [Nutrition, 2008; 24(6): 562-8. 46345 (8/2008)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - green tea -pomegranate - vitamin c - 47602

PomGT tablet  (pomegranate extract (500 mg), green tea extract (300 mg) and vitamin C (60 mg) per tablet) 1 capsule 2 hours after dinner. [J Endocrinol Invest, 2009 Oct 15; (DOI: 10.3275/6564 ) [Epub ahead of print] 47602 (01/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - hydroxyprophylmethylcellulose - 34122

Hydroxyprophylmethylcellulose (HPMC) 2.5-3.75 gm b.i.d. with meals in divided doses. [Am J Cardiol, November 15, 1999;84:1198-1203. 34122 (2000)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - interval walking - 49462

Interval walking for 60 minutes, 5 days per week in type 2 diabetics, defined as alternating between 3 minutes of high speed walking and 3-minutes of low speed walking (high speed walking is the equivalent of the fastest speed you can possibly walk without breaking into a jog), showed statistically-significant improvements in body weight, abdominal visceral adiposity, VO2 peak, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and CGM glucose. The continuous walking group showed no improvement, but had no decline in the above parameters. The control group showed a decline in the above parameters. [Diabetes Care, 2012 Sept 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 49462 (2/20013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - inulin - lactobacillus - 48306

Inulin .2 gm and 9 log CFU of LG220 (per capsule) given 2 capsules 2 times daily after meals. [J Dairy Sci, 2010;93(11):5048-58. 48306 (8/20110)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - kale juice - 46391

Kale juice -150 mL of pure kale juice given in a single dose away from meals, equivalent to 167 gm of fresh kale which is approximately 5 servings of vegetables, lowered LDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol, serum selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity. [Biomed Environ Sci, 2008;21(2):91-7. 46391 (11/2008)] Summary

Cholesterol Lowering - lactic acidosis - 42303

Lactic acidosis secondary to statin use in conjunction with vitamin B1 deficiency. Resolved with vitamin B1 treatment. [J Clin Pathol, 2004;57:989-990. 42303 (12/2004)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - lycopene - 31102

Lycopene at 540 ml of tomato juice (about two glasses) or 125 grams of spaghetti sauce (one small can) per day for one week increased serum lycopene content and reduced LDL cholesterol oxidation. [Lipids, 1998;33:981-984. 31102 (1999)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - macadamia nuts - 40452

Macadamia nuts 40-90 gm/d (12-26 nuts or 40 gm = 1/3rd cup and 90 gm = 2/3rd cup). [J Nutr, 2003;133:1060-1063. 40452 (2003)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - melatonin - 35206

Melatonin 6 mg/d between 9 and 10 p.m. reduced LDL oxidation in postmenopausal women. [J Pineal Res, 2000;28:136-142. 35206 (2000)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - niacin - 31515

Niacin (Niaspan®) intermediate-sustained release (eight to 12 hours) at bedtime: 375 mg in week one; 500 mg in week two; 750 mg in week three; and 1500 mg in week four. [Am J Cardiol, December 17, 1998;82 (12A): 24U-28U. 31515 (1999)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - niacin - 43553

Niacin: Day 1 0.25 gm after lunch, 0.5 gm after dinner and 0.5 gm at night. Day 2 0.25 gm after breakfast, 0.5 gm after lunch, 0.5 gm after dinner and 1gm at night. Day 3 0.25 gm after breakfast, 0.5 gm after lunch, 1gm after dinner and 1gm at night. Day 4 1gm four times daily, taken immediately after the meals and at bedtime. Niacin therapy: Fibrinogen is lowered by 15%; raises HDL-C by 20- 40%; HDL2-C, the large HDL particle is raised by up to 100%; a negligible effect on smaller HDL3; LDL-C is lowered by 15-30%; small, dense LDL particles are significantly lowered; triglycerides are lowered by 15-40%; and Lp(a) decreases10-40%. [J Intern Med. 2005 Aug;258(2):94-114. 43553 (01/2005)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - nuts - 43745 / 44153

Nuts 30 gm/d (almonds, brazil nuts, cashew nuts, hazelnuts, macadamia nuts, peanuts, pecan nuts, pistachio nuts, and walnuts) with dietary cholesterol target of <200mg per day and dietary fibre >25gm per day. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2005 Aug;15(4):284-92. 43745/44153 (2/2006)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - okinawan vegetables - 50145

Vegetables - 169 grams of 371 grams of delivered fresh Okinawan vegetables (Goya (Momordica charantia), green papaya (Carica papaya), Handama (Gynura bicolor), Karashina (Brassica juncea), Njana (Crepidiastrum lanceolatium), Fuchiba (Artemisia vulgaris) and Fudanso (Beta vulgaris)) consumed daily increased circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) and were inversely related to homocysteine and lipids, but positively correlated with both urinary potassium and magnesium excretion and an increase in serum folic acid. Atherosclerosis, 2009 Jun;204(2): 544-8. Epub 2008 Oct 11. 50145 (12/2012)] Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - olive leaf extract - 46631

Olive Leaf Extract, Benolea® (EFLA®943) at 500 mg b.i.d. with meals. [Phytother Res, 2008 Aug; 22(9): 1239-1242. 46631 (9/2008)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - olive oil - 23014

Olive oil (extra virgin) can lower LDL cholesterol and prevent LDL oxidation. [Arteriosclerosis, 1995;117:25-32. 23014 (1995)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - olive oil - 44714 / 45295

Olive oil 25 ml/d increased HDL and lowered the chol:HDL ratio and oxidative lipid damage (the higher the polyphenolic content of the olive oil the greater the beneficial effects). [Ann Intern Med, 2006 Sep 5;145(5):333-1. 44714/45295 (1/2007)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - omega-3 fatty acid - 49170

Omega-3 fatty acids in a single daily dose of 2.4 g of omega-3 fatty acids (1800 mg eicosapentaenoic acid + 600 mg docosahexaenoic acid) after hemodialysis treatment away from meals and 30 ml of Proteinex 18(18 grams of protein), a hydrolyzed collagen containing essential amino acids, by mouth after each dialysis three times per week. [Vasc Health Risk Manag; 2012; 8:187-95. 49170 (5/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - omega-3 fatty acid - 49307

Omega-3 fatty acids at a mean dose of 29.2±12 mg of EPA/kg and 16.1±7.4 mg DHA/kg body weight for a median of 2.5 years reduced total fasting cholesterol significantly from 5.08±0.97 to 4.17±0.54mm in pediatric kidney transplant patients. [Pediatr Transplant, 2012 Jul 27; [Epub ahead of print]. 49307 (9/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - pantethine - 22741

Pantethine 300 mg t.i.d.. [Nephrologia, 1995;15(1):68-73. 22741 (1995)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - pantethine - 50024

Pantethine 200 mg t.i.d. (Pantesin®-HF55). [Nutr Res, 2011 Aug;31(8):608-15. 50024 (4/2012)] [Nutr Res, 2011 Aug;31(8):608-15. 50024 (4/2012)] Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - pantethine - 51067

Pantethine at 600 or 900 mg (300 mg 2 or 3 times daily) reduced total cholesterol 6% and LDL 11 % by 16 weeks. Pantethine 300 mg twice daily was as affective as 900 mg per day. [Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2014 Feb 27;10:89-100. 51067 (1/2016)] Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - pecans - 34590

Pecans at 68 gm/d (= approximately 3/4 cup = 29 gm monounsaturated fat) reduced LDL cholesterol. [J Am Diet Assoc, 2000;100:312-318. 34590 (2000)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - phosphytidal liposomal cream - 25084

Phosphytidal liposomal cream topically applied in rabbit model. [Artery, 1996;22(1):1-23. 25084 (1997)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - phytostanol - 44218

Phytostanol (free) 1.6 g/d (2.7 g stanol esters). [Lipids, 2006;41(2):127-32. 44218 (6/2006)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - phytosterols - 33925

Phytosterols 3 gm/d. [Am J Med 1999;107:588-594. 33925 (2000)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - pistachio nuts - 32246B / 32246

Pistachio nuts (monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) comprise 67 percent of total fat in pistachios; high in vitamin E and fiber) substituting 20 percent of the daily caloric intake instead of high saturated fat foods reduced total cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol. [J Am Coll Nutr, 1999;18(3):229-232. 32246B/32246 (1999)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - pistachio nuts - 46687

Pistachio nuts 1.5 oz (large handful ∼75 nuts) and 3 oz. (2 large handfuls ∼150 nuts) reduce cholesterol in dose dependent manner. [J Clin Nutr, 2008;88 (3):651-659. 46687 (11/2008)] Summary

Cholesterol Lowering - plant sterol - 47333

Plant sterols at 1.8 grams per day in margarine spread over three meals (not away from meals or in a single dose) lowered LDL cholesterol levels. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2009;63(6):747-55. 47333 (10/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - plant sterols - 37791

Plant sterols 1.6 gm/d. [Can J Cardiol, June, 2001;17(6):715-721. 37791 (2001)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - plant sterols - 44700 / 45367

Plant sterols 1gm b.i.d. with meals. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2006 Oct;84(4):756-61. 44700/45367 (12/2006)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - policosanols, red yeast rice - 47790

Red yeast rice extract at 200 mg/d (corresponding to 3 mg of monacolins) and 10mg policosanols once daily (children with familial hyper cholesterolemia). [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2010 Feb 10; [Epub ahead of print]. 47790 (7/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - probiotics - 44630

Probiotics 100-200 mg/d of yogurt drink containing cultures Streptococcus thermophilus 2 x 108 cfu/g and Lactobacillus bulgaricus 107 cfu/g enriched with the probiotic culture Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei 3.6 x 108 cfu/g. [Ann Nutr Metab, 2006; 50(4): 387-93. 44630 (12/2006)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - protein - 46326

Protein (30% soy protein, 35% textured soy protein and 35% animal protein) .8 mg/kg/d. [Diabetes Care, 2008; 31(4): 648-54. 46326 (8/2008)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - red yeast rice - 47484

Red yeast rice in 300 mg capsules, 2 capsules two times daily away from meals. [Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2009;18(3):310-7. 47484 (12/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - royal jelly - 23823

Royal Jelly (67% water, 12% protein, 12% carbohydrate, 5% fat, 1% minerals and about 2% other substances, i.e. vitamins, nucleic acids and other not yet analyzed chemical compounds) 50-100 mg/d orally or 10-100 mg by injection. [Experientia, 1995; 51:927-935. 23823 (1995)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - sea buckthorn - 49723

Sea Buckthorn dried berries at 20 grams/d, which is equal to about 100 g of fresh berries; sea buckthorn oil at 4 grams/d, taken as 8 capsules; sea buckthorn phenolic ethanol extract at 14.6 grams/d (7.3 g sea buckthorn extract + 7.3 g maltodextrin); and 100 grams/d of frozen bilberries all had no effect on blood sugar but the Sea Buckthorn oil lowered total cholesterol and LDL; Sea Buckthorn berries lowered triglycerides; bilberries lowered lipids in the high-risk group but increased triglycerides in the lower risk group; and sea buckthorn phenolic ethanol extract increased triglycerides. No side effects were noted.

[Am J Clin Nutr, 2013 Aug 14; [Epub ahead of print]. 49723 (9/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - sesame lignan - 24907

Sesame lignan 65 mg/d (equal to 18,000 sesame seeds). [Atherosclerosis, 1996;112:135-136. 24907 (1996)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - sesame oil - 48437

Sesame oil 35 grams per day with a fatty acid breakdown of 15.23g of linoleic acid (omega-6)/35g of oil and 14.42g of oleic acid (MUFA)/35g of oil. [Clin Nutr, 2010 Dec 15; [Epub ahead of print]. 48437 (4/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - simian diet - 27424

Simian Diet - leafy vegetables, fruit and nuts x 2 weeks 20-30% LDL reduction. [Metabolism, May, 1997;46(5): 530-537. 27424 (1997)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - soy protein - 22584

Soy protein 17-20 gm/d. [NEJM, 1995;333:276-282. 22584 (1996)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - soy protein - 42786

Soy protein containing 80 mg/d isoflavones (foods containing approximately 40 mg of isoflavones include 2 cups of soy milk, 120 g of uncooked tofu, 20g of soy flour or soy protein isolate, 75 g of uncooked tempeh, half cup of uncooked green soybeans, or 20 g of roasted or mature soybeans). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2005;81;397-408. 42786 (04/2005)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - soy protein - 44523

Soy protein (low or high isoflavones). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2006 Feb;83(2):244-51. 44523 (3/2006)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - soy protein - 45256

Soy protein - 25 gms of soy nuts (½ cup = 101 mg of aglycone isoflanvones). [Arch Int Med, 2007;167:1060-1067; J Womens Health (Larchmt), 2007;16(3): 361-9. 45256 (1/2008)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - soy protein - 45646

Soy protein in juice or soy milk when ultra-heat treated lose cholesterol lowering effect; increases LDL cholesterol. [Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2006 Nov-Dec;57(7):512-9. 45646 (3/2007)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - spirulina - 46595

Spirulina (blue-green algae) 4g (20 tablets) at a time, twice a day (one in the morning, and another in the afternoon), regardless of food intake reduced cholesterol, IL-6 and increased IL-2. [Ann Nutr Metab, 2008;52(4):322-328. 46595 (11/2008)] Summary

Cholesterol Lowering - statins - 44581

Statins reduce CoQ10 levels an approximate equal percentage as to their cholesterol lowering. [BioFactors, 2005;25(1-4):147-152. 44581 (6/2007)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - statins - 45469

Statins may not reduce sudden death. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2006 Sep;16 (6):387-90. Epub 2006 Jul 26. 45469 (3/2007)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - strawberries - 49831

Strawberries equaling 500 mg, or approximately 2 cups, were consumed daily for 15 days and significantly reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels (-8.78%, -13.72% and -20.80%, respectively) while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol remained unchanged. Strawberry supplementation also significantly decreased serum malondialdehyde, urinary 8-OHdG and isoprostanes levels (-31.40%, -29.67%, -27.90%, respectively). A significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity was observed after strawberry consumption. Spontaneous and oxidative hemolysis were also significantly reduced (-31.7% and -39.03%, respectively). Strawberry intake also significantly decreased the number of activated platelets. Strawberries consumption improved plasma lipid profiles, biomarkers of antioxidant status, antihemolytic defenses and platelet function in these healthy subjects. [J Nutr Biochem, 2013 Nov 27; [Epub ahead of print]. 49831 (4/2014)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - sunlight exposure - 26440

Sunlight exposure - cholesterol levels are lower in summer and closer to the equator, and, rise in winter and away from the equator. [Quart J Med, 1996;89:579-589. 26440 (1997)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - tocotrienols - 33451

Tocotrienols 100-200 mg/d have shown a 15% to 20% reduction in plasma total cholesterol (must have < 20% alpha-tocopherol content). [Clinical Biochemistry 1999;32(5):309-319. 33451 (2000)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - tocotrienols - 46221

Tocotrienols 200 mg b.i.d. with meals. [Mol Aspects Med. 2007 Oct-Dec;28(5-6):692-728. Epub 2007 Mar 27. 46221 (6/2008)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - vanadyl sulphate - 37127

Vanadyl Sulphate 150 mg/d. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, March, 2001:86(3): 1410-1417. 37127 (2001)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - vegan, vegetarian - 50195

Vegan and vegetarian diets had a 32% lower risk of ischemic heart disease than meat eaters probably from a lower mean LDL cholesterol and a diet lower in saturated fats and higher in polyunsaturated fats and dietary fiber. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2013 Mar;97(3):597-603. 50195 (3/2013)] Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - vegetarian diet - 49219

Vegetarians have lower : all cause mortality; ischemic heart disease (IHD) ; mortality from circulatory diseases; mortality from cerebrovascular disease; significantly lower cancer incidence than nonvegetarians. Vegetarians have reduced cardiovascular risk factors compared with omnivores including: decreased body mass index; waist to hip ratio; blood pressure; plasma total cholesterol (TC); triglycerides; LDL-C levels; serum lipoprotein(a); plasma factor VII activity; the ratio of TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TAG/HDL-C, and serum ferritin levels. [Ann Nutr Metab, 2012 Jun 1;60(4):233-240. 49219 (7/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - violent crime - 36580

Violent crime arrest linked to low cholesterol (< 250 mg/dl). [J Psychiatric Res, 2000;34:301-309. 29478, 36580 (2001)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - vitamin c - 24624

Vitamin C 1000 mg/d. [J Am Coll Nutr, 1996;15(2):154-158. 24624 (1996)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - vitamin c - 46339

Vitamin C 500 mg/d or more. [Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 2008; 7(2): 48-58. 46339 (061108)] Summary

Cholesterol Lowering - vitamin d2, vitamin d3 - 48786

Vitamin D2 or D3 at 50,000 IU given once or twice weekly with breakfast in vitamin D insufficient (<32 ng/ml) hypercholesterolemic subjects suffering from statin-induced myositis-myalgias resulted in resolution of these symptoms with normalization of vitamin D levels (goal 40-80 ng/ml). [Curr Med Res Opin, 2011 July 6; [Epub ahead of print]. 48786 (9/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cholesterol Lowering - vitamin e - 35165

Vitamin E 200 mg/d - 400 mg/d (D,L-α-tocopherol) reduced HDL and LDL oxidation but increased small atherogenic LDL particles. [Atherosclerosis, 2000;150:129-134. 35165 (2000)] Summary Interview

Cholesterol Lowering - vitamin e - 44945

Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 600 mg plus gemfibrozil. [Saudi Med J, 2006 Apr;27(4):453-9. 44945 (8/2006)] Summary Interview
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