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Expert Pearls

Depression - aerobic exercise - 22928

Aerobic exercise and fitness reduces depression. [Arch Physical Med Rehab, 1995;76:647-652. 22928 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - aerobic exercise - 33547

Aerobic exercise (e.g., walking, jogging and biking), 3 times per week for 30 minutes per session at an intensity of 70% to 85% of their maximum heart rate reserve. [Arch Intern Med 1999;159.2349-2356. 33547 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - aerobic exercise - 34749/23164

Aerobic exercise 2 to 5 times per week with a duration of 30 to 40 minutes, including 10 minutes of warm-ups (including stretching) and cool down at each session. The exercise should be performed at 60% to 70% of the maximal intensity. [The Physician Sports Med, September 1995;23(9):44-56. 34749/23164 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - aerobic exercise - 37328

Aerobic exercise training consisting of walking on a treadmill daily for 30 minutes at 80% of one’s maximal heart rate followed by interval training x 10 days improved mood. [Br J Sports Med, 2001;35:114-117. 37328 (2001)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - aerobic training - 37328

Aerobic training - walking on a treadmill daily 30 min/d followed by interval training program (80 percent of the maximal heart rate). [Br J Sports Med, 2001;35:114-117. 37328 (2001)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - antioxidants - 50274

Depression can be treated with anti-inflammatory and antioxidative therapies that include individual or combinations of nutrients such as zinc, coenzyme Q10, glutathione, melatonin, melatonin receptor agonists, allopregnanolone, PDE4 inhibitors, statins, aspirin, sodium benzoate, tryptophan-enriched diets, and antioxidants, including epigallocatechin gallate, curcumin, quercetin, alpha-lipoic acid and resveratrol. A combination of antioxidants used by themselves or with medication include NAC (1.2 g/day), coenzyme Q10 (up to 1.0 g/day) together with curcumin or alpha lipoic acid with minimal side effects. [Curr Pharm Des. 2013 Oct 28. [Epub ahead of print] 50274 (01/2014)] Interview PubMed

Depression - benfotiamine, b1 - 50892

Benfotiamine is a thiamine (B1) given at 600 mg taken in one dose or divided doses with or without meals in males with alcohol dependence reduced psychiatric symptoms including depression. [Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Jul 1;152:257-63. 50892 (8/2015)] Interview PubMed

Depression - bipolar - omega-3 fatty acids - 46950

Omega-3 fatty acids EPA 360 mg/day and DHA 1560 mg/day in divided doses with food a.m. and p.m.. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2009 Jan 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 46950 (6/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - bipolar disorder, dha, epa, lna - 48880

Omega-3 fatty acids up to DHA 3.4g, EPA 6.2mg, α-LNA 6.6g or as little as 3g-4g (2-4 capsules) per day. [The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2011 Aug 9 [Epub ahead of print]. 48880 (11/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - cholesterol levels - 33674

Cholesterol levels naturally low (<5 mmol/l), not pharmacologically reduced, were associated with depression and suicide. [Br J Psychiatry 1999;175: 259-262. 33674 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - dha, epa - 49885

Fish oil at a lower dose of EPA + DHA dose of 2.4 g/day (EPA 1.6 g + DHA 0.8 g; four capsules/day) and higher dose of 16.2 g/day (high-dose: EPA, 10.8 g + DHA 5.4 g; two tbsp/day) in adolescents with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRIs) resistant depression had symptoms decrease significantly in the high-dose group and there was a trend in the low-dose group. [Pharma Nutrition, 2014 April 1;2(2):38-46. 49885 (8/2014)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - dha, epa, vitamin e - 49676

DHA 2.0 g, EPA 0.6 g and vitamin E 10 mg (8 x 1 gm capsules) taken with meals, either at one time or in split doses, improved depression scores without side effects. EPA acts to increase cerebral blood flow via eicosanoid metabolism, whereas DHA affects neurotransmission by increasing membrane fluidity, neurite outgrowth, glucose uptake in the brain, neuronal survival and protecting the brain from neurodegeneration.

[Lipids, 2013 Jun 4; [Epub ahead of print]. 49676 (8/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - diet - 12081

Diet - eliminate caffeine, sucrose and eat a higher protein and lower carbohydrate diet x 2 weeks. [The Nutrition Report, March 1991;9(3):17,24. 12081 (1996)] Summary Interview

Depression - eicosapentaenoic acid - 44637

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) - 1 gm/d. [Prev Med, 2006 Jan;42(1):4-13. Epub 2005 Dec 7. 44637 (12/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - eicosapentaenoic acid - 45042

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) - 2 gm/d (adults). [Am J Psychiatry, 2006 Jun;163(6): 1098-1100. 45042 (7/006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - eicosapentaenoic acid / docosahexaenoic acid - 44385/45042

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (EPA/DHA 2:1) - 1 gm/d (children). [Am J Psychiatry, 2006 Jun;163(6):1098-100. 44385/45042 (7/006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - fatty acids - 24849

Fatty acids - severity of depression was correlate with an increased ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in the plasma and erythrocytes. [Lipids, 1996(Supp.):31:S-157- S-161. 24849 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - folic acid - 44283/44868

Folic acid 5 mg/d x 2 months. [Clin Nutr, 2006 Feb;25(1):60-7. Epub 2005 Oct 10. 44283/44868 (6/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - folic acid serum - 44283/44868

Folic acid serum < 3.1 ng/ml. [Clin Nutr, 2006 Feb;25(1):60-7. Epub 2005 Oct 10. 44283/44868 (6/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - green tea - 50050

Green tea consumption in ascending order of intake 1 to 5 or more cups per day is associated with a reduction in functional disability (cognitive function, depression, psychological distress, stroke) and healthy life expectancy, in a dose dependent fashion. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 March;95(3):732–739. 50050 (5/2012)] Interview PubMed

Depression - hypericum extract - 33969

Hypericum extract 350 mg (STEI 300 extract) equivalent to 2 gm of dried herb at 6 gms/d (1050 mg/d). [BMJ December 11, 1999;319:1534-1539. 33969 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - inositol - 23703

Inositol 6-12 gm/d of oral powder mixed in juice. [Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 1995;31:167-175. 23703 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - klamath microalgae extract - 48291

Klamath microalgae extract, Klamin® 1 tablet (800 mg) 1 hour after breakfast and 1 tablet an hour before dinner in menopausal women. [Minerva Ginecol, 2010;62(5):381-8. 48291 (11/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - menopausal - melatonin - 38002/44837

Melatonin 3 mg qhs 10-11 p.m.. [Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2005 Dec;1057:393-402. 38002/44837 (6/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - omega-3 fatty acids - 44481/45041

Omega-3 fatty acids (EPA>DHA) 1 gm/d. [Am J Psychiatry, 2006 Jun;163(6): 96978. 44481/45041 (8/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - omega-6:omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids - 24849

Omega-6:omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the Western diet is between 10 - 20:1 may increase risk to depression compared with estimates of about 1:1 in the diet of our hunter-gatherer ancestors. [Lipids, 1996(Supp.): 31:S-157- S-161. 24849 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - processed food - 47563

Whole food diets containing large amounts of vegetables, fruits and fish reduced the incidence of depression while processed food diets containing large amounts of sweetened desserts, fried foods,processed meat, refined grains and high-fat dairy products increased the risk to depression. [Br J Psychiatry, 2009; 195(5): 408-13. 47563 (1/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - s-adenosyl-l-methionine - 42868

S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAMe) 800-1600 mg/d. [J Clin Psychopharmacol, December 2004;24(6):661-664. 42868 (04/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - st. john's wort - 43182

St. John's Wort Extract WS® 5570 (hypericum extract (LI160); standardized to 3-6% hyperforin and 0.12-0.28 % hypericin) 900-1800 mg/d. [BMJ, March 5, 2005;330:503-506. 43182 (6/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - st. john’s wort - 38145

St. John’s Wort - 2 x 1 tablet of 250 mg St. John’s Wort extract Ze 117 daily (ethanol 50% (m/m);drug-extract ratio 4-7:1; 0.2% total hypericin;<1% hyperforin). [Pharmacopsychiatry, 2001;34(Suppl 1):S49-S50. 38145 (2002)] Summary Interview

Depression - st. john’s wort - 46729

St. John’s Wort extract 500-900 mg/d (up to 1800 mg/d) benefits major depression. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2008 Oct 8;(4):CD000448. 46729 (10/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - vitamin b12 - 28725

Vitamin B12 normal ranges should be 600 to 2000 pg/ml. Below 550 to 600 pg/ml deficiencies start to appear in the CSF. Humans are born with serum levels of about 2000 pg/ml, which decline gradually throughout life. [Medical Hypotheses, 1991;34:131-140. 28725 (1998)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - vitamin b12 - 35168

Vitamin B12 deficiency - higher methylmalonic acid (MMA; more than 271 nmol/L) in combination with low serum vitamin B12 levels (less than 258 pmol/L for a high cut-off and more than 148 pmol/L for a low cut off) associated with depression. [Am J Psychiatry, 2000;157;715-721. 35168 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - vitamin b12 - 35168

Vitamin B12 500-1000 mcg/d orally. [Am J Psychiatry, 2000;157:715-721. 35168 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - vitamin b12 - 44283/44868

Vitamin B12 1000 mcg/d IM x two weeks; t.i.w. x 2 weeks; weekly x 4 weeks; then 1000 to 2000 mcg/ day orally. [Clin Nutr, 2006 Feb;25(1):60-7. Epub 2005 Oct 10. 37838, 44283/44868 (6/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - vitamin b12 - 44868

Vitamin B12 serum < 200 pg/ml. [Clin Nutr, 2006 Feb;25(1):60-7. Epub 2005 Oct 10. 44868 (6/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - vitamin c, fluoxetine - 49560

Vitamin C at 1000 mg given once daily after a meal with fluoxetine (10–20 mg/day) in pediatric patients with major depressive disorder significant decrease in depressive symptoms compared to the fluoxetine plus placebo group. There were no serious side effects and the compliance was excellent. Nutr J, March 9, 2013;12:31. 49560 (4/2013)] [Nutr J, March 9, 2013;12:31. 49560 (4/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - vitamin d3 - 46728

Vitamin D3 20,000 - 40,000 IU/week by mouth. [J Intern Med, Sept 2008; [Epub ahead of print]. 46728 (11/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

Depression - zinc - 47058

Zinc 25 mg (hydroaspartate) after breakfast improved response in imipramine resistant patients. [J Affect Disord, 2009 March 9; [Epub ahead of print]. 47058 (6/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed
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