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Expert Pearls

Diabetes Mellitus - 5-hydroxy-tryptophan - 30375

5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5-HTP) 750 mg/d reduced carbohydrate intake and cravings in non-insulin dependent diabetics. [Intern J Obesity, 1998; 22:628-654. 30375 (1998)] Summary

Diabetes Mellitus - alpha lipoic acid - 47306

Alpha lipoic acid 400 mg/d. [Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 2009;21(2):198. 47306 (10/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - alpha-linolenic acid - 44946

Alpha-linolenic acid (diet) increased fasting insulin. [Obesity (Silver Spring), 2006 Feb;14(2):295-300. 44946 (9/2006)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - alpha-lipoic acid - 45077

Alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg q. 12 hrs, 30 minutes before meals improved insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal rate. [Hormones (Athens), 2006; 5(4): 251-8. 45077 (6/2007)] Summary

Diabetes Mellitus - beta-glucan - 48935

Beta glucan (barley) 3g/d and 6g/d per day given as a flavored water beverage (1g or 2g dose) taken in a divided dose 3 times a day with meals. [Nutr Metab (Lond), 2011 Aug 16; 8:58. 48935 (12/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - breakfast - 50243

Breakfast – Irregular breakfast consumption (0–6 times/wk) increase type 2 diabetes risk in older women. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug;98(2):436-43. 50243 (8/2103)] Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - breast-feeding - 27905

Breast-feeding - being exclusively breast-fed for at least two months reduced risk to diabetes in Pima Indians by 50% compared to those not breast-fed. [The Lancet, July 19, 1997;350:166-168. 27905 (1997)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - caffeine - 41815

Caffeine at 5 mg/kg body weight increased insulin resistance in obese non-diabetics. [Am J Clin Nutr,2004;80:22-28. 41815 (2004)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - carnitine - 47974

Carnitine (L)1 gram two times daily before main meals. [JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 2010 May- June;34(3): 295-9. 47974 (7/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - carotid atherosclerosis, fruit, vegetables, yogurt - 51046

Diabetic subjects consuming more fruit and vegetables and dairy products (yogurt), suggesting improved diet quality, had a greater reduction in carotid intima media thickness. (Note: dairy foods actually weren’t increased in the intervention group as expected, though the intervention group had a higher intake of yogurt, along with more fruits and vegetables). [Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct;102(4):771-9. 51046 (12/2015)] Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - chromium - 44312

Chromium - yeast bound 400 mcg/d. [Biol Trace Elem Res, 2006;109(3):215-30. 44312 (7/2006)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - cinnamon - 45393 / 46012

Cinnamon 6 gms/d. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1552-6. 45393/46012 (10/2007)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - cinnamon - 48116

Cinnamon bark powder 1 gram daily with breakfast. [J Am Board Fam Med, 2009; 22(5): 507-12. 48116 (9/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - cow’s milk - 37796

Cow’s milk (fermented or non-fermented) is insulinemic and insulinotrophic but low glycemic. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2001;74:96-100. 37796 (2001)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - curcumin - 49352

Curcumin in a 150 mg capsule 30 minutes after breakfast and another 30 minutes after supper significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), serum total FFAs and triglycerides while increasing LPL activity. No side effects were noted. [Nutr Food Res, 2012 Aug 29; [Epub ahead of print]. 49352 (10/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - curcumin, tumeric - 49279

Curcumin 3 250 mg capsules of dried rhizomes of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) two times daily after breakfast and dinner (1.5 gm/d). [Diabetes Care, 2012 Jul 6; [Epub ahead of print]. 49279 (8/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - daflon® - 34595

Daflon® 500 (containing 450 mg diosmin and 50 mg hesperidin) q.i.d. a day with meals. [Diab Nutr Metab, 1999;12:256-263. 34595 (2000)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - diet - 21878

Diet - reduces neuropathy with vegan diet which excludes any food or drink that comes from animal, fish, meat, milk or eggs; excludes refined foods such as free fats (oil, shortening or margarine, etc.); free carbohydrates (sugar, syrups, starch, etc.); or refined cereals (white rice, white flour, etc.); or refined legumes (soy protein isolate or soy protein concentrate products). Eat only whole nuts, beans, seeds, whole grains, fruit and vegetables. [J Nutritional Med, 1994;4:431-439. 21878] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - diet - 44514

Diet - low-fat, low-glycemic, high fiber vegan diet (reduced HA1c, weight, cholesterol). [Diabetes Care, 2006; 29(8):1777-83. 44514 (8/2006)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - diet, vegetarian - 50846

Vegetarian diets prevent and treat type 2 diabetes. [J Am Coll Nutr. 2015 Apr 27:1-11. [Epub ahead of print] 50846 (6/2015)] Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - flax gum - 47282

Flax gum 5 gm per day from 6 wheat chapattis. [Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2009 Jun 22; [Epub ahead of print]. 47282 (9/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - flaxseed - 47387

Flaxseed-derived lignan capsules at 360 mg lignan per day. [Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:288-97. 47387 (7/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - flaxseed-derived lignans - 45832

Flaxseed-derived lignans (FDL) 120 mg t.i.d. before or after meals but not with meals. [PLoS ONE, 2007; 2(11): e1148. 45832 (1/2008)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - fluoroquinolones, magnesium, tendinopathy - 50453

Fluoroquinolones may induce an intracellular magnesium deficit that can lead to insulin resistance and the subsequent development of type 2 diabetes. Induced magnesium deficiency may also be a partial cause of fluoroquinolone-induced tendinopathy. [Med Hypotheses. 2014 May 29. pii: S0306-9877(14)00217-5. 50453 (8/2104)] Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - ginkgo biloba extract - 43223

Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) 120 mg q.a.m.. [Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 2005;68:29-38. 43223 (7/2005)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - green tea, pomegranate, vitamin c - 47602

PomGT tablet  (pomegranate extract (500 mg), green tea extract (300 mg) and vitamin C (60 mg) per tablet)1 capsule 2 hours after dinner. [J Endocrinol Invest, 2009 Oct 15; (DOI: 10.3275/6564 ) [Epub ahead of print] 47602 (01/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - hibiscus sabdariffa - 46873

Hibiscus Sabdariffa (Sour Tea) tea infusions b.i.d. in diabetics. [J Hum Hypertens, 2008 Aug 7; [Epub ahead of print]. 46873 (4/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - infant feeding - 40942

Infant feeding - the prevalence of islet autoimmunity could be reduced if all families complied with infant feeding guidelines and did not introduce gluten-containing and solid foods to infants until after age 3 months. [JAMA, October 1, 2003;290(13):1721-1728. 40942 (2004)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - infant feeding - 40942

Infant feeding - early introduction of gluten-containing food is a risk factor for the development of type 1 diabetes associated autoimmunity in children of parents with type 1 DM with the HLA-DR3/DR4-DQ8 genotype. [JAMA, October 1, 2003;290(13):1721-1728. 40942 (2004)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - infant feeding - 40942

Infant feeding guidelines to reduced risk to developing autoantibodies to Islet cells/autoimmune type I diabetes mellitus - exclusively breast-feed, or if breast-feeding is not possible, milk-formula feed their newborns until 6 months of age. The first recommended solid foods introduced after 6 months of age are vegetables (mostly carrots), followed by meat and potatoes, and then cereals from 7 months of age. [JAMA, October 1, 2003;290(13):1721-1728. 40942 (2004)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - interval walking - 49462

Interval walking for 60 minutes, 5 days per week in type 2 diabetics, defined as alternating between 3 minutes of high speed walking and 3-minutes of low speed walking (high speed walking is the equivalent of the fastest speed you can possibly walk without breaking into a jog), showed statistically-significant improvements in body weight, abdominal visceral adiposity, VO2 peak, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and CGM glucose. The continuous walking group showed no improvement, but had no decline in the above parameters. The control group showed a decline in the above parameters. [Diabetes Care, 2012 Sept 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 49462 (2/20013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - lithium carbonate - 31480

Lithium carbonate 100 mg/d. [Biological Trace Element Research,1997;60:131-137. 31480 (1999)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - magnesium - 48178

Magnesium pidolate, a bioavailable organic salt, given by mouth at a dose of 4.5 grams per day
providing 368 milligrams of elemental magnesium in two divided doses (morning and evening), with
or without meals improve endothelial function.
[Magnes Res, 2010 Aug 24; [Epub ahead of print]. 48178 (10/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - magnesium chloride - 41392

Magnesium chloride 2.5 gm/d (325 mg elemental magnesium) by taking 50 ml of a magnesium chloride solution (50 g of magnesium chloride per 1000 ml makes a 5% solution). [Diabetes Care, April 2003;26(4):1147-1152. 41392 (2004)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - magnesium deficiency - 23713

Magnesium deficiency common. [Ann Nutr Metab, 1995;39:217-223. 23713 (1996)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - magnesium deficiency - 43396

Magnesium deficiency is (lower [Mg2+]) is associated with a faster renal function deterioration rate in DMII patients. [Clin Nephrology, July 2005;63(6): 429-436. 43396 (8/2005)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - magnesium oxide - 43396

Magnesium oxide 400 mg P.O. b.i.d. if proven deficient by serum magnesium is less than or equal to 1.6 mg/dl. [Clin Nephrology, July 2005;63(6):429-436. 43396 (8/2005)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - Melatonin - 50209

Lower urinary melatonin secretion was independently associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Lower melatonin secretion has been shown to be associated with increased insulin resistance. Too little (less than 6 hours) and too much sleep (greater than 9 hours) have been associated with increased incidence of diabetes. Red meat has been associated with lower levels of melatonin secretion. [JAMA, April 3, 2013;309(13):1388-1396. 50209 (4/2013)] Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - n-acetylcysteine - 50370

N-acetylcysteine may be beneficial in a wide range of conditions with oxidative stress and depleted intracellular glutathione including acetaminophen overdose, diabetic atherothrombosis, cystic fibrosis and contrast-induced nephropathy. It’s effectiveness may be dose-dependent with the degree of glutathione depletion. In acetaminophen overdose dosing has been three consecutive intravenous infusions of 150, 50, 100 mg/kg respectively each over 1 hour and oral and nebulized doses between 700-2800 mg/d. [Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Feb;141(2):150-9. 50370 (6/2014)] Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - omega-3 fatty acids - 46407

Omega-3 fatty acids (2 g/d DHA and 3 g/d EPA, fish oil) in 3 divided doses with meals increased stroke volume and cardiac output. [Eur J Appl Physiol, 2008 June 18; [Epub ahead of print]. 46407 (8/2008)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - periodontitis, zinc - 50739

Zinc insufficiency as measured in the serum, saliva or gingival tissues in individuals with both periodontitis and diabetes may warrant supplementation and be beneficial in both these conditions. [Curr Diabetes Rev. 2014;10 (6):397-401. 50739 (4/2015)] Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - pomegranate - 46918

Pomegranate juice 50 ml/d or pomegranate polyphenol extract 5 mL/d in a single dose with a meal reduced atherosclerotic risk. [J Agric Food Chem, 2008; 56(18): 8704-13. 46918 (3/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - pomegranate juice - 50230

Pomegranate juice 1-2 ml/kg (70 kg = 70-140 ml; 240 ml = 1 cup = 8 oz) reduces insulin resistance, fasting blood sugar and oxidative stress which makes it useful in diabetes type 1 and 2, cardiovascular disease and cancer. [ Nutr Res 2013 May;33(5):341-8. 50230 (2/2014)] Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - probiotic - lactobacillus rhamnosus gg - bifidobacterium bb12 - 47769

Probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 at 1010 CFU per day of each strain in capsules given once daily in healthy pregnant females from the first trimester through the end of exclusive breast feeding was safe and reduced the incidence of gestational diabetes. [ Br J Nutr., 2010 Feb 4:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]. 47769 (4/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - protein - 46326

Protein (30% soy protein, 35% textured soy protein and 35% animal protein) .8 mg/kg/d. [Diabetes Care, 2008; 31(4): 648-54. 46326 (8/2008)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - sesame oil - 48437

Sesame oil 35 grams per day with a fatty acid breakdown of 15.23g of linoleic acid (omega-6)/35g of oil and 14.42g of oleic acid (MUFA)/35g of oil. [Clin Nutr, 2010 Dec 15; [Epub ahead of print]. 48437 (4/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - taurine - 44368 / 44736

Taurine .5-1.5 gm/d. [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2006 Jan;9(1):32-6. 44368/44736 (6/2006)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - thiamin - 46881

Thiamin 100 mg x 3 daily; one at breakfast, one in the early afternoon and one in the evening in type 2 diabetic patients (21 male, 19 female) showed improvement in kidney function. [Diabetologia, 2008 Dec 5; [Epub ahead of print]. 46881 (2/2009) Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - tomato juice - 35817

Tomato juice 500 ml/d. [Diabetes Care, June, 2000;23(6):733-738. 35817 (2000)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vanadium - 32657

Vanadium (inorganic vanadium as vanadyl sulfate, vanado-tartrate and sodium meta vanadate) 20-50 mg/d of elemental vanadium per day. [J Altern Complement Med, 1999;5(3):273-291. 32657 (1999)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vanadium - 32657

Vanadium (organic vanadium as Bis-maltolato oxovanadium or bis-glycinato-oxovanadium) 300 mcg of elemental vanadium per tablet, taken 1 to 3 times a day. [J Altern Complement Med, 1999;5(3):273-291. 32657 (1999)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vanadyl sulphate - 37127

Vanadyl sulphate 150 mg/d. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, March, 2001:86(3):1410-1417. 37127 (2001)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vinegar - 45692

Vinegar (apple cider) 2 tablespoons before bed lowered morning fasting blood glucose. [Diabetes Care, published ahead of print, published online August 21, 2007. 45692 (11/2007)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin b1 - 25833

Vitamin B1 benfothiamine 3 x 100 mg/d for 2 to 3 weeks and thereafter a dose of 1 to 2 x 100 mg/d benefitted diabetic polyneuropathy. [Exp Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1996;104:311-316. 25833 (1997)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin b1 - 45096

Vitamin B1 - Vitamin B1 100 mg I.V. x 1 week, then 50 mg P.O. b.i.d. then 50 mg/d P.O. as maintenance eliminated the need for transfusions, normalized hemoglobin and platelets, and improved diabetic control in a child born with a thiamine transporter gene mutation. The case was an 18-year-old girl who was born deaf-mute, had diabetes at age 9 months and severe anemia at age 2 years who could only be treated with transfusions for 17 years. [Eur J Endocrinol, 2006;155(6):787-792. 45096 (6/2007)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin b6 - 20478

Vitamin B6 insufficiency can occur in diabetics with persistent hyperglycemia; vitamin B6 deficiency can aggravate diabetes. Vitamin B6 in its active form, pyridoxal phosphate, controls and regulates the intermediate metabolism of insulin. [Biochemical and Metabolic Biology, 1994;52: 10-17. 20478 (1996)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin b6 - 20478

Vitamin B6 4-6 mg/d. [Biochem Metab Biol, 1994;52:10-17. 20478 (1996)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin c - 23713

Vitamin C levels are inversely related to glycemic control. [Ann Nutr Metab, 1995;39:217-223. 23713 (1996)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin c - 23713

Vitamin C 2000 mg/d (reduced lipids improved glycemic control) and vitamin E 600 mg/d (lowered blood pressure). [Ann Nutr Metab, 1995;39:217-223. 23713 (1996)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin c - 42312

Vitamin C 300 mg/d or more (supplemented) increased the cardiovascular disease death rate in postmenopausal diabetic patients. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2004;80:1194-2000. 42312 (12/2004)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin d - 26930

Vitamin D improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. [Diabetologia, 1997;40:344-347. 26930 (1997)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin d - 43749

Vitamin D adequacy reduces risk to type I and type II diabetes. [Diabetologia, 2005 Jul;48(7):1247-57. Epub 2005 Jun 22. 43749 (11/2005)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin d - 44798 / 45399

Vitamin D levels inversely correlated; hypovitaminosis D more frequent in diabetes mellitus. [Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Nov;65(5):593-597. 44798/45399 (1/2007)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin d - 48343

Vitamin D 4000 IU per day in type 1 diabetes reduces HgA1c levels. [Ann Saudi Med, 2010;30(6):454-8. 48343 (02/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin d - 50182

Vitamin D at 2000 IU per day orally in a single dose at breakfast in new onset type 1 diabetics (adolescents and children) along with intensive insulin therapy showed vitamin D is safe and produced a protective immunologic profile (increased regulatory T cells) and slowed the decline of residual β-cell function. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a level of less than 20 ng/ml; a level between 21 to 29 ng/ml was considered insufficient; and 30ng/ml sufficient. [Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2012 Jul 1;166(7):601-7. 50182 (3/2013)] Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin d3 - 48966

Vitamin D3 in serum of pregnant females was inversely related to diabetes type 1 incidence. Development before the age of 15 was more than twofold higher for the offspring of women with the lowest levels of vitamin D compared to the offspring of those with levels above the upper quartile. [Diabetes, January, 2012;61(1):175-8. 48966 (1/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin e - 28522

Vitamin E 15 mg/kg body weight and nicotinamide 25 mg/kg body weight preserved beta cell function in early onset type I diabetes. [Eur J Endocrinol, 1997;137:234-239. 28522 (1997)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin e - 34596

Vitamin E 600 mg/d. [Hypertension, 1999;34(Part II):1002-1006. 34596 (2000)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin e - 35817

Vitamin E 800 IU/d. [Diabetes Care, June, 2000;23(6):733-738. 35817 (2000)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin e - 45860

Vitamin E 400 IU/d (d-alpha tocopherol) in Hp 2-2 genotype subjects reduce CVD events in by half versus placebo. [Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2007 Nov 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 45860 (2/2008)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - vitamin k - 50234

Higher dietary intake of vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) was associated with a reduced incidence of diabetes possibly from vitamin K’s role in reducing insulin resistance, inflammation and, possibly increasing insulin secretion. There are not side effects to increasing dietary vitamin K.

[Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Nov;96(5):1113-8. 50234 (1/2014)] Interview PubMed

Diabetes Mellitus - whole grain - 39786

Whole grain intake in the top 20% had a 30% reduction in diabetic risk compared to whole grain consumption in the lowest 20% risk at 12 years of followup. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2002;76:535-540. 39786 (2002)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - whole grains, cereal fiber - 40342

Whole grains and cereal fiber intake (higher) reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Highest quartile of whole-grain intake had a 35% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to the lowest quartile. A 60% lower risk was observed with higher cereal fiber intake. Rye bread was the main type of whole-grain. Fiber derived from fruit or vegetables was not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2003;77:622-629. 40342 (2003)] Summary Interview

Diabetes Mellitus - zinc - 48733

Zinc - 22 mg of oral elemental zinc from zinc sulfate in a single daily dose (preferably 2 hrs after breakfast) with a multivitamin/mineral supplement. [Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes, 2011 Jan 26;4:53-60. 48733 (8/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed
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