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ja_mageia

Expert Pearls
Letter "E"
Categories beginning with "E"

Ear Infection

Eczema

Encephalopathy

Endothelial Function

Enteritis (radiation-induced)

Enuresis (nocturnal)

Epilepsy

Epitaxis

Erectile Dysfunction

Erythema Nodosum

Erythroderma

Estrogen Metabolism

Exercise

Exercise (duodenal ulcer)

 

Entries beginning with "E"

Ear infection - Elimination diet

Food elimination diet of cows milk, wheat, egg white, peanut, soy, orange, tomato, chicken and apple. [Ann Allergy, September 1994;73:215-219. 20995 (1996)] Summary Interview

Ear Infection - Food allergy

Food allergy a cause of. [Ann Allergy, September 1994;73:215-219. 20995 (1996)] Summary Interview

Encephalopathy - Acetyl-L-carnitine

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) 2gm b.i.d..(hepatic encephalopathy] [Dig Dis Sci, 2008 Mar 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 46359 (06-15-08)] ltt Summary

Encephalopathy - Antioxidant

Antioxidant mixture by mouth including CoQ10, NADH, vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, a multivitamin in a fresh fruit and vegetable puree (in hospital by family, case report); subsequent gastric feeding tube administration (rehabilitation hospital) of CoQ10, alpha-lipoic acid, NADH, vitamin C, vitamin E, B complex, multivitamin-mineral mixture, L-glutamine, omega 3 fatty acids, magnesium and a pureed mixture of fruits and vegetables concurrent with parenteral glutathione and ascorbate. (spongiform encephalitis/Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease). [J Am Coll Nutr, 2002;21(1):22-25. 38833 (2002)] Summary Interview

Encephalopathy - Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 30 mg/kg/day in three divided doses (pediatric, genetic defect, coenzyme Q10 deficiency). [Neurology, 2005 Aug 23;65(4):606-8. 43616/43808 (11/2005)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - alpha lipoic acid - 50564

Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) at 1800 mg per day in obese subjects with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or hypercholesterolemia lead to modest weight loss. [Curr Med Chem. 2014 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print] 50564 (11/2104)] Interview PubMed

Endothelial Function - arginine - 32138

Arginine (L-) 5-8 gm/d is minimum effective dose; 18-20 gm/d is a maximum effective dose without significant side effects. [Cardiology 1999;90:153-159. 32138 (1999)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - calcium - 36718 / 39257

Calcium 1000 mg/d plus 2 mg estriol increased BMD and improved endothelial function. [J Am Geriatri Soc, April 2002;50(4):777-778. 36718 / 39257 (2002)] Summary

Endothelial Function - citrulline - 48344

L-citrulline with water at 2.4 grams in the morning before breakfast and 3.2 grams in the evening before sleeping. [Int J Cardiol, 2010, Nov 8; [Epub ahead of print]. 48344 (1/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Endothelial Function - coenzyme q10 - 45545

Coenzyme Q10 100 mg t.i.d. with meals improved endothelial function and extracellular SOD. [Eur Heart J, 2007 Jul 19; [Epub ahead of print]. 45545 (9/2007)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - curcumin - 49419

Curcumin (Theracurumin®; Theravalues Corp, Japan), at 150 mg per day divided into 6 capsules (1 capsule contained 25 mg curcumin), 3 capsules after breakfast and 3 after dinner, improved endothelial function. [Nutr Res, 2012 Oct; 32(10): 795-9. 49419 (12/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Endothelial Function - diet - 28669

Diet - high fat meal increases endothelial dysfunction. [JAMA, November 26, 1997;278(20):1682-1686. 28669 (1998)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - diet / trans fatty acids - 42103

Diet rich in trans fatty acids (margarine, commercially baked products, and deep-fried fast food) impairs endothelial function. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2004;80:1029-1035. 42103 (11/2004)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - folic acid - 22602 / 22112

Folic acid 5 mg/d and vitamin B6 250 mg/d. [Eur J Clin Investigation, 1995;25:176-181. 22602/22112 (1996)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - garlic - 49298

Garlic - aged garlic extract compound (Kyolic Formula 109) delivering1200 mg of AGE and 120 mg of CoQ10 (4 tablets per day). [Nutrition, 2012 Aug 1; [Epub ahead of print]. 49298 (8/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Endothelial Function - green tea catechins - 47757

Green tea catechins 80 to 580 mg/day once daily with meals. [Circ J, 2010 Feb 4; [Epub ahead of print]. 47757 (3/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Endothelial Function - isoflavone - 46714

Isoflavone 80 mg/day in a single dose with or without food. [Eur Heart J, 2008 Sept 23; [Epub ahead of print]. 46714 (12/2008) Summary

Endothelial Function - magnesium - 48178

Magnesium pidolate, a bioavailable organic salt, given by mouth at a dose of 4.5 grams per day providing 368 milligrams of elemental magnesium in two divided doses (morning and evening), with or without meals improve endothelial function. [Magnes Res, 2010 Aug 24; [Epub ahead of print]. 48178 (10/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Endothelial Function - omega-3 fatty acids - 46407

Omega-3 fatty acids (2 g/d DHA and 3 g/d EPA, fish oil) in 3 divided doses with meals increased stroke volume and cardiac output. [Eur J Appl Physiol, 2008 June 18; [Epub ahead of print]. 46407 (8/2008)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - tea (black) - 45109

Tea (black) - the addition of milk negates the enhancement of nitric oxide and improvement in endothelial function that plain tea provides by milk caseins forming complexes with the protective tea catechins. [Eur Heart J, 2007; 28(2): 219-23. 45109 (6/2007)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - vitamin c - 28669

Vitamin C 1,000 mg/d and vitamin 800 IU/d after high fat meal. [JAMA, November 26, 1997;278(20):1682-1686. 28669 (1998)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - vitamin c - 29230 / 29224

Vitamin C 2 gm/d in heart failure patients. [Circulation, 1998;97:363-368. 29230/29224 (1998)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - vitamin c - 33832

Vitamin C .5-2gm/d. [Eur Heart J, 1999;1676-1680. 33832 (2000)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - vitamin c - 33832

Vitamin C 3 gm in an intravenous infusion of 100 ml 0.9% saline over 10 minutes. [Eur Heart J 1999;1676-1680. 33832 (2000)] Summary Interview

Endothelial Function - vitamins c - 40905

Vitamins C 500 mg/d and E 400 IU/d. [Circulation, 2003;108:1059-1063. 40905 (2003)] Summary Interview

Endothelial FunctionDiet - fruits / vegetables / fish - 42103

Diet rich in fruits (antioxidants), vegetables (folic acid), and fish (n-3 fatty acid) benefits endothelial function. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2004;80:1029-1035. 42103 (11/2004)] Summary Interview

Enteritis (radiation-induced) - Lactobacillus acidophilus

Lactobacillus acidophilus (NFCO) 1748 daily 1010 c.f.u. daily in 150 ml of yogurt starting 5 days prior to radiotherapy, daily during the therapy and for 10 days after completing radiotherapy. [Fifth International Meeting on Progress on Radio-Oncology, May 1995;10-14:501-504. 23402 (1995)] Summary Interview

Enuresis (nocturnal) - Acupuncture therapy

Acupuncture therapy (traditional Chinese). [Scand J Urol Nephrol, 2001;35:40-43. 37046 (2001)] Summary Interview

Epilepsy (see seizures) - Eicosapentaenoic Acid

Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) 1 gm/d and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) .7 gm/d (refractory seizures). [Epilepsy Behav. 2005 Sep;7(2):253-8. 43785 /44072 (1/2006)] Summary Interview

Epilepsy (see seizures) - Multivitamin /Mineral

Multivitamin/mineral, calcium, magnesium, selenium (glutathione peroxidase), zinc, folic acid, vitamins B6, B12, C, D, E and K. [J Pharmacol Sci 2005 Aug;98(4):340-53. Epub 2005 Aug 2. 44610 (5/2006)] Summary Interview

Epitaxis - n-acetylcysteine - 47360

N-acetylcysteine 600 mg t.i.d. with or without meals in patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasias. [Rhinology, 2009 Mar;47(1):85-8. 47360 (12/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Erectile Dysfunction - acetyl-L-carnitine - 43770

Acetyl-L-carnitine 2 gm/d and proprionyl-l-carnitine 2 gms/d. [Urology, 2005;66(5):1080-5. 43770 (5/2006)] Summary Interview

Erectile Dysfunction - arginine - 44952

Arginine 1.7 g/d (dipeptide arginyl aspartate) and Pycnogenol® 80-120 mg/d. [Sex Marital Ther. 2003 May-Jun;29(3):207-13. 44952 (7/2006)] Summary Interview

Erectile Dysfunction - cardiovascular disease, nitric oxide - 50099

Exercise 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity daily; 500-1,000 mg of EPA/DHA daily; increased intake of antioxidants (i.e. green tea, dark chocolate, berries, fruits and vegetables, red wine); 500-1,000 mg of vitamin C, and/or 2 capsules of pycnogenol (usual capsules contain 40-60 mg per capsule); folic acid (400 ug per day); avoid excessive alcohol, and decrease fat and sugar intakes; along with pelvic floor exercise can achieve results equal to or better than the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (Cialis, Levitra and Viagra). L-arginine at 5 gms/d has improved ED in some studies. 2-3 gm of L-citrulline will most likely have a similar effect since it is the intracellular source of arginine and about half of the arginine dose is required for similar blood levels. Vegetables are a natural source of nitric oxide. Dr. Meldrum's book about ED (with Joseph C. Gambone, DO, MPH , Marge Morris, M Ed, RD, CDE and Claudia Meldrum) is "Survival of the Firmest" and website http://www.erectile-function.com/. Am J Cardiol, 2011 Aug 15;108(4):599-606. Epub 2011 May 31. 50099 (5/2012)] Interview PubMed

Erectile Dysfunction - diet, lifestyle - 50637

Erectile function can be enhanced significantly by diet, supplements and lifestyle factors that increase nitric oxide which increase blood flow into the penis by relaxing and dilating the penile artery, and, by the strengthening of pelvic floor muscles with pelvic floor exercises (PFE) which keep the blood trapped in the penis longer to maintain an erection. Beneficial lifestyle factors include; weight control, exercise, reduced intake of fat and sugar, increased intake of fruits and vegetables, moderate alcohol, and limiting barbequing and grilling/broiling of foods. Supplements that can help increase nitric oxide include folic acid, omega-3 fatty acids (fish oil) and pycnogenol. Instructions on PFE and Dr. Meldrum’s book, “Survival of the Firmest” are available at www.erectile-function.com. [J Sex Med. 2014 May;11(5):1208-20. 50637 (1/2015)] Interview PubMed

Erectile Dysfunction - korean red ginseng - 45682

Korean Red Ginseng 1000 - 3000 mg/d before breakfast. [Asian J Androl, 2007; 9(2): 241-4. 45682 (11/2007)] Summary

Erectile Dysfunction - periodontal disease - 50171

Vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED) can be affected by chronic periodontitis do to inflammatory cytokines released that can negatively affect endothelial dysfunction of the small vessels in the penis. Diets that are rich in protein, whole grains, fiber, vitamins, minerals and PUFAs have positive effects on periodontal health and can improve endothelial function and reduce vulnerability to VED. [J Periodonto, 2011 Dec;82(12):1665-9. 50171 (4/2013)] Interview PubMed

Erectile Dysfunction - propionyl-l-carnitine - 45315

Carnitine - propionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) 1 gm b.i.d. independently from Sildenafil 50 mg b.i.w. and meals in diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction reduced oxidative stress and improved endothelial dysfunction markers in type 2 diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction and had more sustained improvement in symptoms of E.D. than Sildenafil alone. [Eur Urol, 2007 Apr 25; [Epub ahead of print]. 45315 (7/2007)] Summary Interview

Erectile Dysfunction - sunlight, vitamin d -

Vitamin D 6000 IU/d with 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 levels between 60-80 ng/ml. [Dermatoendocrinol. 2012 Apr 1;4(2):128-36. 50259 (1/2014)] Interview PubMed

Erectile Dysfunction - yohimbine - 26601 / 26602

Erectile DysfunctionYohimbine 5-10 mg t.i.d.. [Arch Sexual Behavior, 1997;26(1):49-62. 26601 / 26602 (1997)] Summary Interview

Erectile Dysfunction - yohimbine - 39233

Yohimbine 5.4 mg -10.8 mg t.i.d. or 5.4 mg 1-2 tablets 15-30 minutes before sex. [Intern J Impotence Res,2002;14:25-31. 39233 (2002)] Summary Interview

Erythema Nodosum - Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 I.M. 1000 mcg twice a week x 4 weeks then monthly I.M. vitamin B12 1000 mcg. At six months oral sublingual vitamin B12 1000 mcg twice a week (case report of complete remission). [J Am Board Fam Pract. 2005 Nov-Dec;18(6):567-9. 43946/44357 (1/2006)] Summary Interview

Erythroderma - Folic acid

Folic acid 2.5 mg/d, vitamins B6 50 mg/d and vitamin B12 1 mg/d (in case of concurrent methotrexate therapy supplementation with 15 mg of calcium folinate the day after the administration of methotrexate). [ J Dermatolog Treat, 2007;18(3):138-46. 44991/45996 (11/2007)] Summary Interview

Estrogen Metabolism - Dioxin exposure

Dioxin exposure may decrease the 2:16 estrogen ratio by increasing16-hydroxyestrogens. [Arch Environ Occup Health, 2005 Jul-Aug;60(4):215-22. 45639 (03/2007)] Summary Interview

Exercise - antioxidants - 24460

Antioxidants (beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E) can reduce oxidative damage in heavy exercisers. [Sports Medicine, 1996;21(3):213-238. 24460 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - antioxidants - 34758

Antioxidants - beta-carotene 32 mg/d, vitamin C 1000 mg/d, vitamin E 600 mg/d reduced lipid peroxides and prevented reductions in vitamin C levels in professional basketball players. [Int J Sports Med, 2000;21(2):146-150 . 34758 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - athletes, probiotics - 48851

Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracase at 109 cells per day in a powder suspended in water (aqueous suspension) in the morning, during breakfast in a single dose. [ Curr Microbiol, 2011 June; 62(6):1689-96. 48851 (11/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - beetroot juice - 47417

Beetroot juice (nitrate rich) 500 ml sipped throughout the day. [J Appl Physiol, August 6, 2009; [Epub ahead of print]. 47417 (10/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - beetroot juice - 49617

Beetroot juice at 140 ml (~8 mmol of nitrate) taken 2.5 hours before exercise.

[J Appl Physiol, 2013 May 2; [Epub ahead of print]. 49617 (6/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - beets - nitric oxide - 50122

Beetroot - 200 grams of baked, peeled and chopped beetroot (≥500 mg nitrate), mixed with cinnamon and other herbs for palatability, taken on an empty stomach 45-60 minutes before running. [JAcad Nutr Diet, 2012 Apr;112(4):548-52. 50122 (9/2012)] Interview PubMed

Exercise - branch chain amino acids (bcca) - 45547

Branch chain amino acids (BCAA) 6 gms/d in 5 divided doses during the run, an additional 2 grams administrated on the day of 25-km run (2g/500ml; 0.4% mixture of BCAA in a 4% carbohydrate solution) reduced muscle soreness, fatigue and LDH elevation. [J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2007; 47(3): 316-322. 45547 (12/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - caffeine - 20801

Caffeine 3 mg of caffeine per kilo of body weight (approximately1 to 1½ mugs of strong coffee) as ergogenic aid for endurance and sprint activity. [J Applied Physiol, 1994;19(1):111-138. 20801 (1995)] Summary Interview

Exercise - carnitine - 25588

Carnitine (-L) 3 gm/d reduced DOMS (delayed onset muscle soreness) and CPK levels after eccentric exercise of the quadriceps (20 minute single step test). [Int J Sports Med, 1996;17:320-324. 25588 (1997)] Summary Interview

Exercise - citrulline mallate - 47908

Citrulline malate 8 grams one hour before the training session. [J Strength Cond Res, 2010 Apr 7; [Epub ahead of print]. 47908 (6/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - coenzyme q10 - 46214

Coenzyme Q10 100mg b.i.d. (1 tablet, “fast-melt”) taken 30 minutes prior to each meal (morning and night). [J Int Sic Sports Nutr, 2008; 5(1): 8. 46214 (7/2008)] Summary

Exercise - coenzyme q10 - 47366

Coenzyme Q10 100 mg daily in a single dose every 24 hours in powder-filled capsules in the morning after breakfast increased anaerobic capacity. [J Strength Cond Res, 2009 July 28; [Epub ahead of print]. 47366 (10/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - coenzyme q10 - 48741

Coenzyme Q10 100 mg daily in a single dose (powder-filled capsules) in the morning after breakfast for 8 weeks decreased malondialdehyde (oxidative stress) after repeated short-term supramaximal exercise. [ J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 2011 June;51(2):305-12. 48741 (8/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - coq10, ubiquinol - 49660

Ubiquinol at 50 mg per capsule taken as 2 capsules three times daily with food increased maximum power output in healthy trained athletes.

[J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2013 April 29;10(1):24. 49660 (7/2103)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - creatine - 28249 / 28621 / 28250

Creatine 20 g/d loading dose x 5 days then 2-5 gm/d (‘sprinting’ type exercises). [Internat J Sports Med, 1997;18:369-372. 28249, 28621/28250 (1997)] Summary Interview

Exercise - creatine - 32700

Creatine 20 g/d loading dose x 5 days then 2-5 gm/d (‘sprinting’ type exercises). [Clin J Sports Med 1998;8(4):286-297. 32700 (1999)] Summary Interview

Exercise - creatine - 34329

Creatine 20 g/d loading dose x 5 days then 2-5 gm/d (‘sprinting’ type exercises). [J Sports Med Phys Fitness, 1999;39:189-196. 34329 (2000)] Summary Interview

Exercise - disease prevention - 24181B

Disease prevention - daily participation in the prescribed exercise program has highly beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, arthritis, hyperlipidemia, depression, cancer and COPD: a) by increasing blood supply to all organs and tissues; b) by improving muscle/tendon/ ligament/strength, mobility and flexibility; c) by the release of endorphins (the feel good hormones); d) by increasing bone formation; and e) by stimulating creativity. Exercise restores/improves the function of all body tissues and organs. [The Physician and Sports Medicine, February, 1996;24(2):72-78. 24181B (1996)] Summary Interview

Exercise - duodenal ulcer - 35844

Duodenal ulcer risk was reduced risk by approximately 50% in males with moderate or higher amounts of leisure-time physical activity (active - those who walked or ran 10 miles or more a week; moderately active - those who walked or ran less than 10 miles a week or did another regular activity). [West J Med, August 2000;173:101-107. 35844 (2000)] Summary Interview

Exercise - ginger - 47991

Two grams of ground ginger (either “raw” or “heat-treated”) divided into 6 capsules was taken in a single dose orally with water away from meals. [J Pain, 2010 Apr 23; [Epub ahead of print]. 47991 (8/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - juice plus® - 44563

Juice Plus® 6 capsules/d (12,500 IU vitamin A activity (100% from beta-carotene), 276 mg vitamin C, 108 IU vitamin E, 780 mcg folate, and 80 mg calcium per day, in addition to other phytonutrients / reduced post-exercise protein carbonyls). [Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2006; 38(6): 1098-105. 44563 (12/2006)] Summary Interview

Exercise - lactobacillus paracase, lactobacillus rhamnosus - 48851

Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus paracase at 109 cells per day in a powder suspended in water (aqueous suspension) in the morning, during breakfast in a single dose. [Curr Microbiol, 2011 June; 62(6):1689-96. 48851 (11/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - magnesium orotate - 31201

Magnesium orotate 1,000 mg (65.6 mg of elemental magnesium) t.i.d. improved cardiovascular function and exercise tolerance in CHD patients. [Cardiovascular Drugs and Surgery, 1998;12:153-156. 31201 (1999)] Summary Interview

Exercise - melatonin - 48703

Melatonin in 3 mg capsules taken orally, 1 capsule two days before the exercise test with the dinner, 3 capsules on the previous day (breakfast, lunch and dinner), 1capsule one hour before beginning the physical test. [J Pineal Res, 2011 April 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 48703 (6/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - probiotics - 49368

Probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium lactis W51, Enterococcus faecium W54, Lactobacillus acidophilus W22, Lactobacillus brevis W63, and Lactococcus lactis W58; Ecologic®Performance or OMNi-BiOTiC®POWER) at 2 sachets per day at 2 g each (4g/day), equivalent to1010 CFU/day was taken in 100–125 mL of plain water with one sachet taken one hour prior to meals decreased zonulin levels suggesting improvement in gut barrier integrity. [J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2012 Sep 20;9(1):45. 49368 (11/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise - ribose - 40023

Ribose 5 g dissolved in water and ingested 30 - 60 minutes before and after weight-training regimen (total of 10 g/d). [Curr Therapeutic Res, August 2002;63(8):486-495. 40023 (2003)] Summary Interview

Exercise - vitamin c - 31868

Vitamin C 500 mg/d. [Internat J Vit Nutr Res, 1999;69(1):41-44. 31868 (1999)] Summary Interview

Exercise - vitamin c - 44563

Vitamin C 1000 mg/d and vitamin E 400 IU/d (reduced post-exercise protein carbonyls). [Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2006; 38(6): 1098-105. 44563 (12/2006)] Summary Interview

Exercise - vitamin c - 44563

Vitamin C 1000 mg/d, vitamin E 400 IU/d and selenium 90 ug/d (reduced post-exercise muscle soreness). [Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2006; 38(6):1098-105. 44563 (12/2006)] Summary Interview

Exercise - vitamin c - 44694 / 46287

Vitamin C 1000 mg t.i.d. (pretreatment reduced muscle soreness). [Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2006 Jun;16(3):270-80. 44694/46287 (4/2007)] Summary Interview

Exercise - vitamin d2, vitamin d3 - 48786

Vitamin D2 or D3 at 50,000 IU given once or twice weekly with breakfast in vitamin D insufficient (<32 ng/ml) hypercholesterolemic subjects suffering from statin-induced myositis-myalgias resulted in resolution of these symptoms with normalization of vitamin D levels (goal 40-80 ng/ml). [Curr Med Res Opin, 2011 July 6; [Epub ahead of print]. 48786 (9/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Exercise Performance - vitamin d - 49628

Vitamin D3 2000 IU per day in elite ballet dancers significantly increased isometric strength and vertical jump, and significantly reduced injuries compared to controls. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as a circulating serum 25(OH)D level between 10–30 ng/ml (25–75 nmol/l) and deficiency as a level below 10 ng/ml (25 nmol/l)).

[J Sci Med Sport, 2013 April 22; [Epub ahead of print]. 49628 (6/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed
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