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Expert Pearls
Letter "F"
Categories beginning with "F"



Fibrinogen (lowering)

Fibrocystic Breast Disease

Fibroids (uterine)



Folic Acid


Fracture (hip)

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS)


Entries beginning with "F"

Falling - Calcium

Calcium 1,000 mg/d (elemental from calcium carbonate) and vitamin D3 400 IU (10 ug) reduced risk. [Aging Clin Exp Res. 2005 Apr;17(2):125-32. 43407, 43537/43598 (9/2005)] Summary Interview

Falling - Calcium citrate

Calcium citrate 1000 mg/d (elemental ) in divided doses with meals and vitamin D2 1000 iu/d with the evening meal. [Arch Intern Med, 2008;168(1):103-8. 46001 (6/2008)] Summary Interview

Fatigue - alpha lipoic acid, ATP Fuel, carnitine, coq10, mitochondria, nadh - 50467

Chronic diseases of all types, including aging, result in some type of mitochondrial dysfunction. Key mitochondrial supportive nutrients (ATP Fuel®) and therapeutic dose ranges include: L-Carnitine varying from 140 mg to over 2 g per day with most recommendations in the range of 1-2 g per day in divided doses. Up to 6 g per day of dietary supplementation of L-carnitine is safe; CoQ10 has been used in doses up to 1.2 g per day. Frequent daily doses are 30-300 mg per day; Alpha lipoic acid at 200 to 600 mg per day; Microcarrier-stabilized NADH varies from 10-30 mg per day; and Lipid Replacement Therapy (NTFactor®) at 1-2 g of stabilized phospholipids. [Altern Ther Health Med. 2014 Winter; 20 (Suppl 1):18-25. 50467 (9/2014)] Interview PubMed

Fatigue - Caffeine withdrawal

Caffeine withdrawal symptoms in a.m.. [The Lancet, 1997;349:279-281. 27049 (1997)] Summary Interview

Fatigue - Diet

Diet - eliminate caffeine, sucrose and eat a higher protein and lower carbohydrate diet x 2 weeks. [The Nutrition Report, March 1991;9(3):17,24. 12081 (1996)] Summary Interview

Fatigue - inflammatory bowel disease, vitamin b1 - 50512

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) between 600 mg/day (60 kg = 132 lbs) to 1,500 mg/day (90 kg = 198 lbs) taken orally in patients with Crohn’s Disease or Ulcerative Colitis with normal blood levels of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate showed regression of fatigue. Too much thiamine can cause a reversible tachycardia and sleep disturbance. [Altern Complement Med. 2013 Aug;19(8):704-8. 50512 (11/2014)] Interview PubMed

Fatigue - Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 normal ranges should be 600 to 2000 pg/ml. Below 550 to 600 pg/ml deficiencies start to appear in the CSF. Humans are born with serum levels of about 2000 pg/ml, which decline gradually throughout life. [Medical Hypotheses, 1991;34:131-140. 28725 (1998)] Summary Interview

Fatigue - vitamin c, intravenous - 49041

Vitamin C as ascorbic acid alone at 10 grams given over 30 minutes in 100 cc of normal saline improved fatigue in fatigued office workers without side effects. Fatigue symptoms improved within 2 hours and lasted for a day. Vitamin C reduced oxidative stress and increased blood levels of vitamin C. No other nutrients were give with the vitamin C. [ Nutr J. 2012 Jan 20; 11(1):7. 49041 (3/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fibrinogen (lowering) - Alcohol

Alcohol (moderate); cigarette smoking cessation (significantly reduces); exercise; garlic; omega-3 fatty acid rich diets; vegetarian diet; weight loss. [Arterio, Thromb, Vasc Biol, September, 1995;15(9):1263-1268. 24063 (1996)] Summary Interview

Fibrinogen (lowering) - Cardiovascular risk factor

Cardiovascular risk factor. [Arterio, Thromb, Vasc Biol, September, 1995;15(9): 1263-1268. 24063 (1996)] Summary Interview

Fibrinogen (lowering) - Niacin

Niacin: Day 1 0.25 gm after lunch, 0.5 gm after dinner and 0.5 gm at night. Day 2 0.25 gm after breakfast, 0.5 gm after lunch, 0.5 gm after dinner and 1gm at night. Day 3 0.25 gm after breakfast, 0.5 gm after lunch, 1gm after dinner and 1gm at night. Day 4 1gm four times daily, taken immediately after the meals and at bedtime. Niacin therapy: Fibrinogen is lowered by 15%; raises HDL-C by 20- 40%; HDL2-C, the large HDL particle is raised by up to 100%; a negligible effect on smaller HDL3; LDL-C is lowered by 15-30%; small, dense LDL particles are significantly lowered; triglycerides are lowered by 15-40%; and Lp(a) decreases10-40%. [J Intern Med. 2005 Aug;258(2):94-114. 43553 (01/2005)] Summary Interview

Fibrinogen (lowering) - omega-3 fatty acids, epa, dha - 48958

Omega-3 fatty acid (EPA and DHA) serum levels are inversely associated with fibrinogen levels. Two fish servings per week approximately 1 gram combined EPA and DHA per day. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2011 Sep 7; [Epub ahead of print]. 48958 (12/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fibrinogen - Pycnogenol™

Pycnogenol™ 50 mg per tablet taken twice a day, after breakfast and after dinner. [Redox Rep, 2008; 13(6): 271-6. 46883 (3/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fibrocystic Breast Disease - omega-3 fatty acid - 46920

Omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) elevated in RBC is protective. Am J Clin Nutr, 2009; 89(1): 265-76. 46920 (4/2009) Summary Interview PubMed

Fibroids (uterine) - Enterolignans

Higher urine levels of enterolignans (lignans) reduce risk of fibroids. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2006 Sep;84(3):587-93. 45305 (2/2007)] Summary Interview

Fibromyalgia - coenzyme q10 - 48643

Coenzyme Q10 300 mg/d (soft gel capsules) in three divided doses with meals. [Mitochondrion, 2011 April 7; [Epub ahead of print]. 48643 (5/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fibromyalgia - d-ribose - 41201 / 42747

D-ribose at 5 gms t.i.d. with or without meals for approximately 3 weeks (loading dose) then 5 gm b.i.d. for up to six weeks (can stop if no benefit). [Pharmacotherapy, 2004;24(11):1646-1648. 41201/42747 (02/2005)] Summary Interview

Fibromyalgia - d-ribose - 44986 / 45599

D-ribose at 5 gms t.i.d. with or without meals for approximately 3 weeks (loading dose) then 5 gm b.i.d. for up to six weeks (can stop if no benefit). [J Altern Complement Med, 2006 Nov;12(9):857-62. 44986/45599 (4/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fibromyalgia - gluten free diet - 50583

A gluten-free diet improved digestive complaints in patients with combined fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome found to have celiac disease. There was a significant prevalence (6.7%) of celiac disease in subjects with fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome. [Arthritis Res Ther. 2013;15(6):R201. 50583 (12/2014)] Interview PubMed

Fibromyalgia - vitamin B1 - 50480

Vitamin B1 (thiamine HCL) orally between 600-1800 mg/d in 2-3 divided doses (before 5: p.m.) with meals starting at 600 mg daily and tapered up every 3 days by 300 mg until energy is increased and fibromyalgia symptoms are reduced at the highest dose without side effects. Minimal and reversible side effects are mild tachycardia, anxiety and sleep disturbances. IM thiamine at 100 mg/ml given at 1 ml weekly is equivalent to 1800-2000 mg per day orally, while 100 mg IM of thiamine every 4 days is equivalent to 4000 mg orally each day. Thiamine is kept up for life at a level of symptom reduction, energy enhancement and without side effects. [BMJ Case Rep. 2013 May 20;2013. 50480 (12/2014)] Interview PubMed

Fibromyalgia - vitamin d - 49825

Vitamin D supplementation of 1200 IU or 2400 IU to achieve a serum level between 32-48 ng/ml significantly reduced pain in fibromyalgia patients. [Pain, 2014 Feb;155(2):261-8. 49825 (4/2014)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fibrosis (submucous) - lycopene - 49480

Lycopene (soft gel LycoredTM) at 4 mg twice a day with meals ameliorated the signs and symptoms of oral submucous fibrosis (pre-malignant condition) and improved maximal mouth opening percentage with no side effects. [Indian J Dent Res, 2012 July; 23(4): [Epub ahead of print]. 49480 (2/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fibrosis - alpha lipoic acid - 48558

Alpha lipoic acid 100 mg after meals once daily for 3 months in conjunction with intralesional steroids and hyaluronidase.
[J Cancer Res Ther, 2010 Oct-Dec; 6(4): 508-10. 48558 (04/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Folic Acid - Fortification

Folic acid fortification may correct nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that may reduce the risk to cardiovascular disease, cancer and birth defects. [BMJ USA, March 2004;4:127-131. 41556 (2004)] Summary Interview

Folic acid - Fortification - 2

Folic acid fortification with pteroylmonoglutamic acid (PGA) is not the natural form of the folic acid but is cheap and stable. 5-methyl-H4 folate (5-MTHF) is the major transport form of the vitamin outside the cell. A single dose of 400 mcg (or less) of PGA is converted efficiently into 5-methyl-H4 folate during absorption. The absorption and biotransformation process is saturated at this 400 mcg dose, and anything higher intake will lead to unmodified PGA appearing in the blood which have unknown toxicity. [BMJ USA, March 2004;4:127-131. 41556 (2004)] Summary Interview

Fracture (hip) - calcium - vitamin d - 47310

Calcium 500 mg and vitamin D 400 IU once or twice daily improved post-fracture (hip) survival. [Drugs Aging, 2009;26(5):409-21. 47310 (9/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fracture (hip) - calcium - vitamin d - 47310

Calcium 500 mg and vitamin D 400 IU once or twice daily improved post-fracture (hip) survival. [Drugs Aging, 2009;26(5):409-21. 47310 (9/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fracture (hip) - risk factors - 22016

Risk factors - bisphosphonates, caffeine, estrogen therapy, exercise lack, frailty, hip fracture previously, medications (sedatives, hypnotics), visual impairment. [NEJM, March 25, 1995;12:767-773. 22016 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fracture (hip) - sunlight exposure - 43486

Sunlight exposure (3615 minutes/year or 10 minutes/d) in hospitalized Alzheimer’s patients over 1 year reduced fractures and increased vitamin D levels 2.2 fold. [J Bone Mineral Res, 2005;20(8):1327-1333. 43486 (8/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fracture (hip) - vitamin d2 - 43662 / 43704

Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) 1000 IU/d, vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) 45 mg/d and calcium 600 mg/d (reduced incidence). [Bone. 2005 Jan;36(1):61-8. Epub 2004 Nov 24. 43662/43704 (9/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Fracture - vitamin e - 50300

Low vitamin E intake and serum levels in elderly women were associated with increased fracture risk. Low intakes of vitamin E were associated with higher risk of low bone mass/osteoporosis and low muscle mass/sarcopenia. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 January;99(1):107–114. 50300 (2/2014)] Interview PubMed

Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) - Acetyl-L-carnitine

Acetyl-L-carnitine 20-50 mg/kg/d b.i.d. in granular form dissolved in water or other liquids with or without meals. [Am J Med Genet A, 2008; 146(7): 803-12. 46191 (7/2008)] Summary Interview
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