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ja_mageia

Expert Pearls
Letter "I"
Categories beginning with "I"

Ideation (paranoid)

Immune Function

Infection

Infertility (female)

Infertility (male)

Inflammation

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Insomnia

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia

Intermittent Claudication

Intestinal Permeability

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Ischemic Heart Disease

 

Entries beginning with "I"

Ideation (paranoid) - Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 normal ranges should be 600 to 2000 pg/ml. Below 550 to 600 pg/ml deficiencies start to appear in the CSF. Humans are born with serum levels of about 2000 pg/ml, which decline gradually throughout life. [Medical Hypotheses, 1991;34:131-140. 28725 (1998)] Summary Interview

Immune Function - antioxidant, green tea, leukocytes - 51037

Green tea extract 100 mg three times daily for 14 days showed a significant increase in the activation of leukocytes and a significant increase in the total antioxidant status. [J Complement Integr Med. 2015 Aug 8. 51037 (12/2015)] Interview PubMed

Immune Function - Beta-carotene

Beta-carotene 15 mg/d enhance cell-mediated immune response. [J Lab Clin Med, 1997;129:309-317. 26885 (1997)] Summary Interview

Immune Function - docosahexaenoic acid, dha - 48916

DHA 400 mg/day (each softgel capsule containing 100 mg DHA) taken from the twelfth week of gestation and continued until the end of the fourth post-partum month in breast-feeding women improved cytotoxicity and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators in infants. [Mediators Inflamm. 2011;2011:493925 48916 (12/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Immune Function - Linoleic acid rich diets

Linoleic acid rich diets (maize-based diets) deficient in other polyunsaturated fatty acids and riboflavin resulted in high tissue production of prostaglandin E2, which in turn caused inhibition of the proliferation and cytokine production of Th1 cells, mediators of cellular immunity, increasing the risk to tuberculosis, measles, hepatoma, secondary infection in HIV and kwashiorkor. [Postgraduate Med J, March 1999;75(881):129-132. 32852 (1999)] Summary Interview

Immune Function - Spirulina

Spirulina (blue-green algae) 4g (20 tablets) at a time, twice a day (one in the morning, and another in the afternoon), regardless of food intake reduced cholesterol, IL-6 and increased IL-2. [Ann Nutr Metab, 2008;52(4):322-328. 46595 (11/2008)] Summary Interview

Immune Function - Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 50-100 mg I.M. per day enhanced immune function in critically ill patients. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2006 Oct;60(10):1207-13. Epub 2006 May 3. 44727/45422 (2/2007)] Summary Interview

Immune Function - Vitamin C

Vitamin C 1 gm b.i.d. (with breakfast and dinner) prevented monocyte dysfunction in smokers; normal monocyte function stimulates collateral arteriogenesis. [Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2007; 27(1): 120-6. 45084 (4/2007)] Summary Interview

Immune Function - vitamin d - 49744

Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) supplementation at 140,000 IU/month for 3 months in a single dose dissolved in vegetable oil after a12 hour fast lead to a significant increase in the numbers of peripheral Tregs in vivo with no side effects. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) mainly suppress proinflammatory responses by other immune cells thus preventing exaggerated immune or autoimmune responses. [Eur J Nutr, 2013 Sept 3; [Epub ahead of print]. 49744 (1/2014)] Summary Interview PubMed

Immune Function - Yogurt

Yogurt with probiotics and without 100 - 200 ml/d (100 ml of probiotic yogurt = 109 L. delbrueckii, 2 x 1010 S. thermophilus and 3.7 x 1010 of L. casei DN 114 001; 100 ml conventional yogurt = 6.4 x 109 L. delbrueckii and 3.9 x 109 S. thermophilus). [Ann Nutr Metab, 2006;50(3):282-9. Epub 2006 Feb 23. 44407/45009 (10/2006)] Summary Interview

Immune Function - Zinc gluconate

Zinc gluconate (45 mg elemental zinc) daily in a single or divided dose away from meals reduced infections, tumor necrosis factor alpha, oxidative stress markers. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2007 Mar;85(3):837-44. 45161/45884 (8/2007)] Summary Interview

Infection (nasopharyngeal) - Smoking

Smoking cessation for 12-15 months normalized the high level of nasal pathogens caused by smoking. [Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Feb;133(2):135-8. 45781 (7/2007)] Summary Interview

Infection - Antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic resistance - reduce broad spectrum antibiotic use in animal husbandry via feed and directly into animals, and, in humans more judicious use of antibiotics [CMAJ Nov. 3, 1998;159(9):1129-1136. 32948 (2000)] Summary Interview

Infection - cardiovascular disease, macular degeneration, zinc - 50683

Zinc at 45 mg of elemental zinc daily as acetate or gluconate administered in the post absorptive state (2-3 h after dinner) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk. Zinc has been shown to be deficient in 30% of some elderly populations and has shown therapeutic value in slowing age-related macular degeneration, cardiovascular risk markers and infections. Doses of elemental zinc of 50 mg or more should be taken with 1 mg of copper. Serum levels of zinc are the most clinically efficient way to assess for zinc status. [J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2014 Oct;28(4):364-371. 50683 (2/2015)] Interview PubMed

Infection - Glutamine

Glutamine 20-30 gm/d P.O. or I.V. for catabolic state. [J Nutr, 2001:2569S-2577S. 38827 (2003)] Summary Interview

Infection - probiotic - 48766

Probiotic capsules containing three acid-resistant strains of bacteria (Lactobacillus gasseri: 2.6 billion CFUs; Bifidobacterium bifidum: 0.2 billion CFUs; Bifidobacterium longum: 0.2 billion CFUs) taken once daily in a single capsule away from meals reduced upper respiratory tract illness (URTI) or gastrointestinal (GI) episode, and the mean number of days sick was less in the probiotic group. Compliance was good and no side effects were noted.

[J Sci Sport, 2013 Aug 30; [Epub ahead of print]. 49766 (12/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Infection - vitamin d - 49771

Vitamin D3 at 60,000 IU/month was associated with lower risk of infection and antibiotic use, particularly in older adults (≥70).

[Am J Clin Nutr, 2013 Oct 9; [Epub ahead of print]. 49771 (11/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Infertility (female) - DHEA - 45273

DHEA 25 mg b.i.d.- q.i.d. (most common dose 25 mg t.i.d.). [Fertil Steril, 2005 Sep;84(3):756. 45273 (12/2006)] Summary Interview

Infertility (female) - myo-inositol - 48624

Myo-inositol 2 g in the daytime and 2g of myo+3mg of melatonin at night time, away from meals. [Gynecol Endocrinol, 2011 April 5; [Epub ahead of print]. 48624 (6/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Infertility (female) - myo-inositol - 48624

Myo-inositol 2 g in the daytime and 2g of myo+3mg of melatonin at night time, away from meals. [Gynecol Endocrinol, 2011 April 5; [Epub ahead of print] 48624 (6/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Infertility (female) - vitamin B12 - 46930

Vitamin B12 < 300 pg/ml is a risk factor.

[Andrologia, 2009; 41(1): 46-50. 46930 (4/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Infertility (female) - vitamin C - 21764

Vitamin C is important in ovarian function. [Biology of Reproduction, 1995;52: 262-266. 21764 (1996)] Summary Interview

Infertility (female) - vitamin C - 39982

Vitamin C 3000 mg/d sustained release increased sexual intercourse frequency. [Biol Psychiatry, 2002;52:371-374. 39982 (2002)] Summary Interview

Infertility (male) - aflatoxin exposure - 20837

Aflatoxin exposure; antioxidants may be of benefit. [Internat J Infertil, 1994;39 (3):208-214. 20837 (1995)] Summary Interview

Infertility (male) - arginine - 44952

Arginine 1.7 g/d (dipeptide arginyl aspartate) and Pycnogenol® 80-120 mg/d. [Sex Marital Ther. 2003 May-Jun;29(3):207-13. 44952 (7/2006)] Summary Interview

Infertility (male) - beef - 46025

Beef consumption, by the mothers during pregnancy, was significantly and inversely related to sperm counts in male offspring. [Hum Reprod, 2007 Jun;22(6):1497-502. Epub 2007 Mar 28. 46025 (11/2007)] Summary Interview

Infertility (male) - coenzyme q10 - 49263

Ubiquinol, the reduced form of CoQ10, at 200 mg per day in a single dose with food after lunch, in infertile males showed a positive correlation between treatment duration with CoQ10 and sperm count, mean sperm motility and sperm morphology without side effects. [ J Urol, 2012 Aug;188(2):526-31. Epub 2012 Jun 15. 49263 (8/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Infertility (male) - coenzyme q10, vitamin e - 49792

CoQ10 and vitamin E were low in seminal fluid with increased oxidative stress by increased TBARS and associated with reduced sperm motility. [Bratisl Lek Listv, 2013;114(11):607-9. 49792 (2/2014)] Summary Interview PubMed

Infertility (male) - diet - 46025

Diet - maternal (during pregnancy) consumption of organic, hormone-free and local foods whenever possible. [Hum Reprod, 2007 Jun;22(6):1497-502. Epub 2007 Mar 28. 46025 (11/2007)] Summary Interview

Infertility (male) - fatty acids - 47402

Fatty Acids - Higher omega-3 fatty acids (ALA, DHA, EPA) and lower omega-6 fatty acids may benefit patients with idiopathic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). [Clin Nutr, 2009 Aug 8; [Epub ahead of print]. 47402 (1/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Infertility (male) - selenium - 40388A / 40388

Selenium 225 ug/d and vitamin E 400 mg/d improved sperm motility and reduced production of malondialdehyde in semen. [Arch Androl, 2003;49:83-94. 40388A/40388 (2003)] Summary Interview

Infertility (male) - vitamin b12 - 46930

Vitamin B12 < 300 pg/ml is a risk factor. Vitamin B12 s a risk factor. [Andrologia, 2009; 41(1): 46-50. 46930 (4/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Infertility (male) - vitamin c - 21764

Vitamin C deficiency is associated with low sperm counts, reduced motility, higher incidence of abnormal sperm and agglutination. [Biology of Reproduction, 1995;52:262-266. 21764 (1996)] Summary Interview

Infertility (male) - Vitamin c - 39982

Vitamin C 3000 mg/d sustained release increased sexual intercourse frequency. [Biol Psychiatry, 2002;52:371-374. 39982 (2002)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - amla - 46846

Amla (Emblica Officinalis Extract, Amlamax) at 500-1000 mg/d at bedtime with food. [Indian J Clin Biochem, 2008; 23(4): 378-381. 46846 (2/2009)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - anthocyanins - 45531

Anthocyanins 75 mg/capsules 2 B.I.D. (300 mg anthocyanins/d = 100 g of fresh bilberries). [J Nutr, 2007;137 (8):1951-4. 45531 (9/2008)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - Anxiety, melatonin, pain, sleep, surgery - 50788

Melatonin given perioperatively between 2-10 mg in a single or multiple doses throughout the day, up to possibly 300 mg/kg/bw, has analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and sleep normalizing effects, and an excellent safety profile, any of which may significantly improve quality of life in surgical patients. [Anaesthesia. 2014 Oct;69(10):1163-71. 50788 (5/2105)] Interview PubMed

Inflammation - blueberries, insulin resistance - 50304

Blueberries - 1 serving per day rich in anthocyanins (flavonoids) reduced inflammation and insulin resistance. [J Nutr. 2013 Dec 11. [Epub ahead of print] 50304 (2/2014)] Interview PubMed

Inflammation - C-reactive protein - 47014

Fiber (dietary) consumption between 3.3 - 7.8 g/MJ significantly lowered CRP by 25% - 54%. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2009 Feb 18; [Epub ahead of print]. 47014 (5/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Inflammation - cereal fiber - 44054

Cereal fiber consumption lowered C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and insulin. [Diabetes Care,2006; 29(2): 207-11. 44054 (3/2006)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - coenzyme q10, mediterranean diet - 48960

Mediterranean diet plus 200 mg of CoQ10 in a single dose with meals. [J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2011 Oct 20; [Epub ahead of print]. 48960 (12/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Inflammation - coffee - 44054

Coffee - compared to non-coffee drinkers men and women who consumed > 200 ml/d had 52% higher interleukin - 6, 34% higher C-reactive protein, 20% higher serum amyloid - A, 28% higher tumor necrosis factor-alpha and 3% higher white blood cell counts. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2004;80:862-867. 44054 (11/2004)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - conjugated linoleic acid - 47321

Conjugated linoleic acid(CLA)at 3.12 gm in 200g /week. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2009 May 25; [Epub ahead of print]. 47321 (8/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Inflammation - dha, docosahexaenoic acid - 48916

DHA 400 mg/day (each softgel capsule containing 100 mg DHA) taken from the twelfth week of gestation and continued until the end of the fourth post-partum month in breast-feeding women improved cytotoxicity and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators in infants. [Mediators Inflamm. 2011;2011:493925 48916 (12/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Inflammation - dha, epa, salmon - 48957

Salmon two portions per week equaling 1.8 g of combined EPA plus DHA per portion (500 mg/d of omega-3 fatty acids. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2011, 94, 1418-1425. 48957 (12/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Inflammation - diet - 44550/45118

Diet - low-GI diet reduces oxidative stress. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2006 Jul;84(1):70-6. 44550/45118 (10/2006)] Summary

Inflammation - fiber - 44191/44784

Fiber - increase fiber intake 20-35 gm (inversely related to CRP levels). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2006 Apr;83(4):760-6. 44191/44784 (5/2005)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - fish oil - 47796

Fish oil given parenterally in a 50:40:10 mixture of medium-chain fatty acids, soybean oil and fish oil reduced interleukin-6 in the blood, improved lung function and shortened hospital stay. [Critical Care, Jan 19, 2010;14:R5. 47796 (5/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Inflammation - gamma-linolenic acid - 27951

Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) 3 gm/d increased DGLA to a greater extent than AA in neutrophils obtained from subjects after 3 wk of supplementation and may represent a mechanism by which dietary GLA exerts an anti-inflammatory effect. [J Nutr, 1997;127:1435-1444. 27951 (1997)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - glutathione, n-acetylcysteine, oxidative stress - 51034

Glutathione (GSH – reduced) in a sublingual form 150 mg 3 times daily away from meals and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 200 mg in a single sachet taken once per day away from meals compared to oral glutathione 150 mg 3 times daily away from meals showed an increase of total and reduced GSH levels in the sublingual GSH group and, to a lesser extent, in the NAC group; the GSH/GSSG ratios in the NAC and sublingual GSH arms were significantly higher than oral GSH, which suggests that for GSH pool replenishment oral GSH < NAC < sublingual GSH. [Redox Biol. 2015 Jul 29;6:198-205. 51034 (1/2016)] Interview PubMed

Inflammation - kale juice - 46391

Kale juice -150 mL of pure kale juice given in a single dose away from meals, equivalent to 167 gm of fresh kale which is approximately 5 servings of vegetables, lowered LDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol, serum selenium and glutathione peroxidase activity. [Biomed Environ Sci, 2008;21(2):91-7. 46391 (11/2008)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - lyc-o-mato® - 44192

Lyc-O-Mato® (250 ml) providing 5.7 mg lycopene, 3.7 mg phytoene, 2.7 mg phytofluene, 1 mg beta-carotene and 1.8 mg alpha-tocopherol = 100 g of raw tomatoes or about 50 g of tomato sauce). [J Agric Food Chem, 2006;54(7):2563-6. 44192 (6/2006)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - magnesium - 48503

Magnesium citrate providing 320 mg elemental magnesium daily. Five capsules daily each providing 64 mg of magnesium. Two capsules with the morning meal, one with at the noon meal, and two during the evening meal. [Magnes Res, 2010 Dec 1; 23(4): 158-68. 48503 (3/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Inflammation - mediterranean diet - 43997/44405

Mediterranean diet (high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread and other cereals, potatoes, beans, nuts and seeds. Olive oil is an important monounsaturated fat source. Dairy products, fish and poultry are consumed in low to moderate amounts, and little red meat is eaten. Eggs are consumed zero to four times a week. Wine is consumed in low to moderate amounts) reduced CRP levels. [Ann Nutr Metab, 2006;50(1):20-4. Epub 2005 Nov 4. 43997/44405 (3/2006)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - melatonin - 48703

Melatonin in 3 mg capsules taken orally, 1 capsule two days before the exercise test with the dinner, 3 capsules on the previous day (breakfast, lunch and dinner), 1capsule one hour before beginning the physical test. [J Pineal Res, 2011 April 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 48703 (6/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Inflammation - n-acetylcysteine - 46020

N-acetylcysteine 150 mg/kg and then 15 mg/kg/hr from a continuous I.V. infusion inhibited the adverse effects of E. coli endotoxin on renal function. [Crit Care Med, 2007; 35(8):1869-75. 46020 (7/2008)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - obesity - 45301

Central obesity causes low-grade inflammation. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Sep;84 (3):505-12. 45301 (2/2007)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - omega-3 fatty acids - 49170

Omega-3 fatty acids in a single daily dose of 2.4 g of omega-3 fatty acids (1800 mg eicosapentaenoic acid + 600 mg docosahexaenoic acid) after hemodialysis treatment away from meals and 30 ml of Proteinex 18 (18 grams of protein), a hydrolyzed collagen containing essential amino acids, by mouth after each dialysis three times per week. [Vasc Health Risk Manag; 2012; 8:187-95. 49170 (5/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Inflammation - probiotics - 40427

Probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium lactis W51, Enterococcus faecium W54, Lactobacillus acidophilus W22, Lactobacillus brevis W63, and Lactococcus lactis W58; Ecologic®Performance or OMNi-BiOTiC®POWER) at 2 sachets per day at 2 g each (4g/day), equivalent to1010 CFU/day was taken in 100–125 mL of plain water with one sachet taken one hour prior to meals decreased zonulin levels suggesting improvement in gut barrier integrity. [J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2012 Sep 20;9(1):45. 49368 (11/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Inflammation - pycnogenol® - 44232

Pycnogenol® 200 mg/d (1 mg per lb body weight). [J Inflamm (Lond), 2006;3:1. 44232 (5/2006)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - pyridoxine-hcl - 48043

Pyridoxine-HCl tablets 100 mg daily (plus 5 mg folic acid) taken before breakfast reduced plasma IL-6 and TNF- levels (inflammatory markers). [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2010;64:1007-1013. 48043 (5/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Inflammation - sea buckthorn berries - 45469

Sea buckthorn berries 28 g/d (16.7 mg of flavonol glycosides = 8.4 mg of flavonol aglycones = vitamin C 15.6 mg/ 28 g and vitamin E - alpha-tocopherol 1.1 mg/ 28 g). [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2007 Jun 27; [Epub ahead of print]. 45469 (9/2007)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - spirulina - 46595

Spirulina (blue-green algae) 4g (20 tablets) at a time, twice a day (one in the morning, and another in the afternoon), regardless of food intake reduced cholesterol, IL-6 and increased IL-2. [Ann Nutr Metab, 2008;52(4):322-328. 46595 (11/2008)] Summary Interview

Inflammation - whole grain - 44054

Whole grain consumption lowered C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and insulin. [Diabetes Care,2006; 29(2): 207-11. 44054 (3/2006)] Summary Interview

Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Probiotics

Probiotics at daily doses from 500 million to 400 billion bacteria have been used to keep patients in remission, when given alone or in combination with mesalazine. [Infect Dis Rev, 2001;3:83-87. 37929 (2001)] Summary Interview

Inflammatory Bowel Disease - vitamin d2, vitamin d3 - 49027

Vitamin D3 versus D2 reduced healthcare costs and utilization in IBD patients in a Veterans Affairs study. [Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2012 Jan 10; [Epub ahead of print]. 49027 (2/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insomnia - melatonin - 21990

Melatonin .2-10 mg qhs. [Rev Environ Health, 1994;10(3-4):171. 21990 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insomnia - melatonin - 36975

Melatonin 5.4 mg qhs (effective in 2-4 days). [J Clin Psychiatry, January 2001; 62;1:41-45. 36975 (2001)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insomnia - melatonin - 47203

Melatonin .5-3 mg 4 hours before the endogenous melatonin rise helped. (DLMO = dim light melatonin onset). [Dev Med Child Neurol, 2009;51(5):340-9. 47203 (11/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insomnia - menopause, valerian - 50096

Valerian at 530 mg of a concentrated valerian extract (CVE) showed significant improvement in sleep quality in postmenopausal women without side effects. Menopause, 2011 Sep;18(9):951-5. 50096 (5/2012) [Menopause, 2011 Sep;18(9):951-5. 50096 (5/2012)] Interview PubMed

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - acetyl-l-carnitine - 47473

Acetyl-L-carnitine - 1 gram B.I.D. on empty stomach before breakfast and 2 hours after dinner. [Hypertension 2009; 54(3): 462-4. 47473 (11/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - adiposity, beta-carotene, juice plus+ - 49085

Juice Plus+® at 2 active capsules per day, which provided approximately 3.75 mg of beta-carotene, 117 mg of vitamin C, 22.5 IU of vitamin E, 210 mcg of folate, 30 mg of calcium, and 21 kJ per day, was given in capsule or powdered form with meals, with at least 5 grams of fat to obese pre-pubertal boys (6-10 years of age) and resulted in a 300% increase in beta-carotene, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced abdominal adiposity within 6 months. [J Pediatr, 2012 Feb 28; [Epub ahead of print]. 49085 (4/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - alpha-lipoic acid - 45077

Alpha-lipoic acid 600 mg q. 12 hrs, 30 minutes before meals improved insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal rate. [Hormones (Athens), 2006; 5(4): 251-8. 45077 (6/2007)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - beta-glucan - 48935

Beta glucan (barley) 3g/d and 6g/d per day given as a flavored water beverage (1g or 2g dose) taken in a divided dose 3 times a day with meals. [Nutr Metab (Lond), 2011 Aug 16; 8:58. 48935 (12/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - blueberries, inflammation - 50304

Blueberries - 1 serving per day rich in anthocyanins (flavonoids) reduced inflammation and insulin resistance.

[J Nutr. 2013 Dec 11. [Epub ahead of print] 50304 (2/2014)] Interview PubMed

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - caffeine - 41815

Caffeine at 5 mg/kg body weight increased insulin resistance in obese non-diabetics. [Am J Clin Nutr,2004;80:22-28. 41815 (2004)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - carnitine - 47974

Carnitine (L)1 gram two times daily before main meals. [JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 2010 May-June;34(3): 295-9. 47974 (7/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - chocolate (dark) - 42904

Chocolate (dark) 100 mg/d (=500 mg polyphenols) reduced insulin resistance. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2005;81:611-614. 42904 (04/2005)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - chromium - 44312

Chromium - yeast bound 400 mcg/d. [Biol Trace Elem Res, 2006;109(3):215-30. 44312 (7/2006)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - cinnamon - 45393 / 46012

Cinnamon 6 gms/d. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1552-6. 45393/46012 (10/2007)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - conjugated linoleic acid - 45347

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) 4 gm/d with meals q.i.d. DECREASED insulin sensitivity. [Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 2007;32:372-382. 45347 (08/2007)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - cow’s milk - 37796

Cow’s milk (fermented or non-fermented) is insulinemic and insulinotrophic but low glycemic. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2001;74:96-100. 37796 (2001)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - curcumin - 49352

Curcumin in a 150 mg capsule 30 minutes after breakfast and another 30 minutes after supper significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), serum total FFAs and triglycerides while increasing LPL activity. No side effects were noted. [Nutr Food Res, 2012 Aug 29; [Epub ahead of print]. 49352 (10/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - diet - 46077

Diet - Pritikin Program of a low-fat diet with a good omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids, high in fiber consisting of natural foods, whole grains, fruits and vegetables; 60 minutes of daily aerobic activities as well as stretching and flexibility reduces insulin levels. [Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 2008 Feb 19; [Epub ahead of print]. 46077 (4/2008)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - docosahexaenoic acid (dha), algae schyzochitrium - 48467

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the algae Schyzochitrium at 250 mg or 500 mg per day. [Arch Dis Child, 2011, Jan 12; [Epub ahead of print]. 48467 (3/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - lychee - oligonol® - 47559

Oligonol®, a polyphenol extracted from Lychee, given at dose of two 50 mg capsules two times per day after breakfast and dinner. Journal of Functional Foods, 2009 [published ahead of print]. 47559 (12/2009)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - magnesium chloride - 48475

Magnesium at 2.5 g daily of magnesium chloride (50 ml of a 5% MgCl2; equivalent of 450 mg of elemental magnesium) taken fasting once daily in a single dose. [Eur J Clin Invest, 2011, Jan 17; [Epub ahead of print]. 48475 (3/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - magnesium-aspartate-hydrochloride - 48451

Magnesium-aspartate-hydrochloride enteric coated tablets at a total daily dose of 15 mmol (365 mg) of elemental Mg, taken in three divided doses before meals. [Diabetes Obes Metab, 2010, Nov 18; [Epub ahead of print]. 48451 (3/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - phytoestrogens, soy protein - 48527

Soy protein concentrate 30 gms (70% proteins) containing 16 mg of phytoestrogens (54% genistein, 35% daidzein, and 12% glycitein) reduced blood pressure, HS C-reactive protein and insulin resistance and triggered overt hypothyroidism in subclinical hypothyroid patients. [ J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2011 Feb 16; [Epub ahead of print]. 48527] Summary Interview PubMed

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - plant protein - 22584

Plant protein decreases insulin hypersecretion while animal protein increases insulin hypersecretion. [Nutrition Research, 1994;14(12):1853-1895. 22584 (1996)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - soft drinks - 33945

Soft drinks with refined sugars, especially in children at the onset of puberty and with high BMIs and leptin levels, are susceptible to hyperinsulinemia. [Eur J Cancer Prev 1999;8:289-295. 33945 (2000)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - transcendental meditation - 45012

Transcendental meditation (TM) 2 x per day for 20 minutes each session reduced blood pressure, blood sugar, blood insulin, insulin resistance and heart rate variability improved. [Arch Intern Med, 2006 Jun 12;166(11):1218-24. 45012 (10/2006)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - vanadyl sulphate - 37127

Vanadyl sulphate 150 mg/d. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, March, 2001:86(3):1410-1417. 37127 (2001)] Summary Interview

Insulin Resistance/Hyperinsulinemia - vitamin d - 26930

Vitamin D enhances islet cell insulin secretion, reduces insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. [Diabetologia, 1997;40:344-347. 26930 (1997)] Summary Interview

Intermittent Claudication - Ginkgo biloba extract

Ginkgo biloba extract 120-180 mg/d. [Am J Med, 2000;108:276-281. 35357 (2000)] Summary Interview

Intermittent Claudication - Homocysteinemia/homocystinuria

Homocysteinemia/homocystinuria is a risk factor. [NEJM, February 2, 1995;332 (5):328-329. 21740 (1996)] Summary Interview

Intermittent Claudication - Propionyl-L-carnitine

Propionyl-L-carnitine 1 gm b.i.d.. [Am J Med, 2001;100:616-622. 37617 (2001)] Summary Interview

Intermittent Claudication - Propionyl-L-carnitine - 2

Propionyl-L-carnitine 2 gm/d. [J Am J Cardiol, Nov 15, 1995;26(6):1411-1416. 23642 (1995)] Summary Interview

Intestinal Permeability - Premature infants

Premature infants have increased intestinal permeability. [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 20482 (1995)] Summary Interview

Intestinal Permeability - probiotics - 49368

Probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium lactis W51, Enterococcus faecium W54, Lactobacillus acidophilus W22, Lactobacillus brevis W63, and Lactococcus lactis W58; Ecologic®Performance or OMNi-BiOTiC®POWER) at 2 sachets per day at 2 g each (4g/day), equivalent to1010 CFU/day was taken in 100–125 mL of plain water with one sachet taken one hour prior to meals decreased zonulin levels suggesting improvement in gut barrier integrity. [J Int Soc Sports Nutr, 2012 Sep 20;9(1):45. 49368 (11/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed
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