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Expert Pearls
Letter "O"
Categories beginning with "O"


Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Ocular Disorder



Otitis Media


Entries beginning with "O"

Obesity - 5-hydroxy-tryptophan - 30375

5-hydroxy-tryptophan (5-HTP) 750 mg/d reduced carbohydrate intake and cravings in non-insulin dependent diabetics. [Intern J Obesity, 1998; 22:628-654. 30375 (1998)] Summary Interview PubMed

Obesity - adiposity, beta-carotene, insulin resistance, juice plus+ - 49085

Juice Plus+® at 2 active capsules per day, which provided approximately 3.75 mg of beta-carotene, 117 mg of vitamin C, 22.5 IU of vitamin E, 210 mcg of folate, 30 mg of calcium, and 21 kJ per day, was given in capsule or powdered form with meals, with at least 5 grams of fat to obese pre-pubertal boys (6-10 years of age) and resulted in a 300% increase in beta-carotene, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced abdominal adiposity within 6 months. [J Pediatr, 2012 Feb 28; [Epub ahead of print]. 49085 (4/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Obesity - alpha lipoic acid, endothelial dysfunction - 50564

Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) at 1800 mg per day in obese subjects with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or hypercholesterolemia lead to modest weight loss. [Curr Med Chem. 2014 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print] 50564 (11/2104)] Interview PubMed

Obesity - catechins - 42642

Catechins 690 mg in 1 bottle/d oolong tea (from green tea extract). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2005;81:122-129. 42642 (04/2005)] Summary Interview

Obesity - electroacupuncture - 43671 / 43781

Electroacupuncture reduced 2.3% of waist circumference and 1.7 kg weight loss after six weeks of treatment. [J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2005 Jun;14 (5):434-40. 43671/43781 (10/2005)] Summary Interview

Obesity - exercising - 33427

Exercising more than 200 minutes per week intermittently throughout the day; at one setting throughout the day; and/or providing home exercise equipment (treadmill) led to successful weight loss. [ JAMA October 27, 1999;282(16):1554-1560. 33427 (2000)] Summary Interview

Obesity - flaxseed - 47387

Flaxseed powder 30 g per day in bread helped reduce central obesity. [Am J Clin Nutr 2009;90:288-97. 47387 (7/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Obesity - growth hormone - 43131

Growth hormone 0.13 mg/d x 2 weeks; increased to 0.27 mg/d x 2 weeks; 0.4 mg/day after 4 weeks; 0.53 mg/day after 5 weeks; and after 6 weeks to the target dose of 0.67 mg/day. The dose was reduced by half in the event of fluid-related side effects. The target daily dose of approximately 0.6 mg/day is in agreement with the physiological GH production in middle-aged women (IU = 3 x mg dose). [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2005;90:1466-1474. 43131 (6/2005)] Summary Interview

Obesity - interval walking - 49462

Interval walking for 60 minutes, 5 days per week in type 2 diabetics, defined as alternating between 3 minutes of high speed walking and 3-minutes of low speed walking (high speed walking is the equivalent of the fastest speed you can possibly walk without breaking into a jog), showed statistically-significant improvements in body weight, abdominal visceral adiposity, VO2 peak, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and CGM glucose. The continuous walking group showed no improvement, but had no decline in the above parameters. The control group showed a decline in the above parameters. Summary – Interview - PubMed - [Diabetes Care, 2012 Sept 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 49462 (2/20013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Obesity - leucine, vitamin b6 - 49757

Leucine at 1.125 gm plus vitamin B6 at 15 mg twice daily in obese subjects reduced body fat. The leucine-B6 supplement combined with energy restriction of 500 kcal per day resulted in 50-80% more body weight and body fat loss compared to placebo. Leucine increases mitochondrial metabolism and fat oxidation. Leucine increases fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and fat tissue. Pyridoxal phosphate inhibits calcium influx in adipocytes and decreases fat synthesis and adipocyte lipid content. 

[Diabetes Metab Sydnr Obes, 2013 Aug 23;309-15. 49757 (10/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Obesity - lychee, oligonol® - 47559

Oligonol®, a polyphenol extracted from Lychee, given at dose of two 50 mg capsules two times per day after breakfast and dinner. [Journal of Functional Foods, 2009 [published ahead of print]. 47559 (12/2009)] Summary Interview

Obesity - oligofructose - 47273

Oligofructose (pre-biotic) 7 gms t.i.d. in water or beverage 30 minutes before meals. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2009; 89(6): 1751- 9. 47273 (7/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Obesity - restaurant food - 33864

Restaurant food - people who consumed food from restaurants more often were fatter and conversely, people who consumed food from restaurants less often were leaner; people who ate restaurant food more often consumed a greater amount of calories per kg body weight, more total fat, saturated fat and less fiber than those who ate restaurant food less often. [Obesity Res, Nov 1999;7(6):564-571. 33864 (2000)] Summary Interview

Obesity - serotonin - 30375

Serotonin production increases via tryptophan increase in the brain leads to satiety, in particular leading to a reduction in carbohydrate intake. [Intern J Obesity, 1998; 22:628-654. 30375 (1998)] Summary Interview

Obesity - soft drink - 46201

Soft drink (sugar-sweetened beverages) consumption reduction reduced obesity rates in school children. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2006 Aug;84(2):274-88. 46201 (11/2006)] Summary Interview

Obesity - sugar-sweetened beverage - 46201

Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is a risk factor for childhood obesity. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2006 Aug;84(2):274-88. 46201 (11/2006)] Summary Interview

Obesity - television watching - 29568

Television watching (4 or more hours per day) in children increases risk of obesity. [JAMA, March 25, 1998; 279 (12):938-942. 29568 (1998)] Interview

Obesity - whole grain - 42315

Whole grain consumption was inversely correlated with weight gain. If men increased their intake of whole grains by 40 grams per day (amount in 1 cup brown rice), they would gain 1 kg LESS weight than their counterparts over time. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2004;80:1237-1245. 42315 (01/2005)] Summary Interview

Obsessive Complusive Disorder - micronutrients - 47325

Micronutrient combination 5 capsules t.i.d. with meals (EMPowerplus) - broad spectrum, moderate dose multivitamin and mineral supplement with a proprietary blend containing the following compounds - DL-phenylalanine, glutamine, citrus bioflavonoids, grape seed extract, choline bitartrate, inositol, ginkgo biloba, methionine, germanium sesquioxide, boron, vanadium and nickel). [J Anxiety Disord, 2009;23(6):836-40. 47325 (10/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - inositol - 23703

Inositol 6-12 gm/d of oral powder mixed in juice. [Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 1995;31:167-175. 23703 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - methylcobalamin, vitamin b12 - 50007

Methylcobalamin, the neurologically active form of vitamin B12, I.M. at 100 to 1000 mcg every day or every other day, for 1-2 weeks, followed by a maintenance dose of 100 to 1000 mcg every 1-3 months diminished feet pain and OCD symptoms. [Gen Hosp Psychiatry, 2012 Jan 6. [Epub ahead of print] 50007 (2/2012)] Interview PubMed

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - n–acetylcysteine - 44257

N–Acetylcysteine 600 mg to 3 gms /d. [Psychopharmacology (Berl), 2006; 184 (2): 254-6. 44257 (7/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Obstructive Sleep Apnea - fat - 50264

Sleep Apnea (obstructive) OSA – Gluteal fat samples showed saturated fatty acids were positively related to total sleep time, sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement; a positive associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids and sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement; and omega-3 fatty acids were positively associated with sleep efficiency, slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement. [J Sleep Res. 2013 Oct;22(5):569-72. 50264 (12/2013)] Interview PubMed

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome - antioxidants - 47736

Vitamin C 100 mg b.i.d. and vitamin E 400 IU b.i.d. in the morning and evening after meals. [Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci, 2009;51(4):217-24. 47736 (3/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Ocular Disorder - Curcumin - 50536

Curcumin 100-200 mg of phospholipids-curcumin two times daily with meals. Curcumin may have benefit in a wide variety of eye disorders because of its known anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties since it can own-regulate the expression of genes involved in cell apoptosis, proliferation, and transformation and curcumin inhibits the free radicals production, and so exhibits antioxidant properties. [Planta Med. 2014 Mar;80(4):249-54. 50536 (10/2014)] Interview PubMed

Osteoarthritis - Aquamin ™

Aquamin ™, derived from a red algae (seaweed) rich in calcium, magnesium and other minerals at 800 mg taken with a glass of water t.i.d. (knee osteoarthritis). [Nutr J, 2008; 7(1): 9. 46081 (5/2008)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - chondroitin sulfate - 48869

Chondroitin sulfate 800 mg in the morning (finger osteoarthritis). [Arthritis & Rheumatism, 2011 Sep 6 [Epub ahead of print], (DOI: 10.1002/art.30574) 48869] Summary Interview PubMed

Osteoarthritis - Chondroitin sulphate

Chondroitin sulphate 800 mg/d (knee osteoarthritis). [Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 1998;6(Suppl. A):39-46. 30680 (1999)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - Chondroitin sulphate - 2

Chondroitin sulphate 800 mg/d (knee osteoarthritis). [Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 1998;6(Suppl. A);3-36. 30678 (1998)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - chondroitin, glucosamine, guava, MSM, vitamim d3 - 49360

Glucosamine HCL Combination Product - 7 capsules per day of a combination product containing daily doses of 1200 mg of glucosamine HCL (from chitin of fungal cells); 60 mg of chondroitin sulfate; 300 mg of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM); 105 mg of guava leaf extract (GLE); and 5.6 ug of vitamin D3 resulted in less pain and better knee function, and, blood levels of C2C and HA showed a downward trend during the intervention. [Exp Ther Med, 2011 Sep; 2(5):893-899. 49360 (12/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Osteoarthritis - Curcumin

Curcumin. [Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2005;45(3):145-64. 43586 (9/2005)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - curcumin - 50712

Curcumin (Flexofytol ®), 3 caps in the morning (on an empty stomach, right before breakfast) and 3 caps in the evening for 3 months, each capsule containing 42 mg of bio-optimized curcumin mixed with polysorbate (Tween 80®) in 22 patients with knee OA demonstrated that curcumin decreased the level of Coll2-1 (specific biomarker of cartilage degradation), meaning that curcumin reach the joint and decrease the cartilage degradation. There was a trend towards a decreased CRP. The treatment with curcumin was globally well tolerated. [BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 May 17;14:159. 50712 (4/2015)] Interview PubMed

Osteoarthritis - Folic acid

Folic acid 6400 mcg/d and cobalamin 20 mcg/d in a combined capsule. [J Am Coll Nutrition, 1994;13(4):351-356. 21184 (1996)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - Glucosamine sulfate, Chondroitin sulfate, Shark cartilage

Glucosamine sulfate (3.0 mg/g), chondroitin sulfate (7.2 mg/g), and shark cartilage (14 mg/g), of which 10-30% is chondroitin sulfate, along with camphor (32 mg/g) and peppermint oil (9 mg/g) cream. [J Rheumatol 2003;30:523-528. 41350 (2004)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - Glucosamine sulphate

Glucosamine sulphate 1500 mg in a single dose. [Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2008;16(2):254-60. 46099 (5/2008)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - Glucosamine sulphate - 2

Glucosamine sulphate 1500 mg in a single dose. [Am J Med, 2004;117:643-649. 42287 (12/2004)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - Glucosamine sulphate - 3

Glucosamine sulphate 1500 mg in a single dose. [The Lancet, 2001;357:251-256. 36887 (2001)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - Glycosaminoglycan polysulfuric acid

Glycosaminoglycan polysulfuric acid (GAGPS) - 2 series of 5 intra-articular injections at 1 week intervals of 25 mg (.5 ml) of GAGPS into the knee. [Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 1995;3:15-23. 22891 (1995)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - Hyaluronic acid

Hyaluronic acid - 80 mg/d of the extract of chicken combs (60% hyaluronic acid) benefits knee osteoarthrititis. [Nutr J, 2008;7:3. 46603 (10/2008)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - Niacinamide

Niacinamide 500 mg six times per day. [Inflammation Research, 1996;45:330-334. 25484 (2000)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - Pycnogenol™

Pycnogenol™ 50 mg per tablet taken twice a day, after breakfast and after dinner. [Redox Rep, 2008; 13(6): 271-6. 46883 (3/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Osteoarthritis - Rose-hip

Rose-hip (Rosa-canina) powder 5 gm/d. [Scand J Rheumatol. 2005 Jul-Aug;34 (4):302-8. 44001 (11/2005)] Summary Interview

Osteoarthritis - vitamin d - 49572

Low serum levels of 25 hydroxy-vitamin D [25-(OH)D] have been associated with increased knee radiographic OA, cartilage loss and pain. To raise blood levels of 25-(OH)D above 75 nmol/L requires at least 1500 to 2000 IU/d of supplemental vitamin D. [Rheumatology (Oxford), 2012 March 29; [Epub ahead of print]. 49572 (5/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Calcium

Calcium 1000 mg/d (carbonate or citrate malate) and/or dairy products and gonadal hormones (testosterone - male, estrogen - female). [Am J Clin Nutr, 1994;60:831-6. 21448 (1996)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Essentially fatty acids

Essentially fatty acids - eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA from fish oil) and gamma linolenic acid (GLA from evening primrose oil) combination 4 to 10 gm/d. [Nutrition, 2000;16:386-390. 35522 (2000)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Genistein

Genistein 54 mg/d in divided doses irregardless of meals increased BMD at 24 months. [Ann Intern Med, 2007; 146(12): 839-47. 45456 (9/2008)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Melatonin

Melatonin may have benefit. [Developmental Medicine Child Neurology, 2004; 46:776-782. 42513 (02/2005)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Premature graying

Premature graying subjects were 4½ times more likely to have osteoporosis. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1994;79(3):854-857. 21006 (1996)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Sodium

Sodium - reducing the average sodium intake to levels of 70 mmol/d lowers urinary calcium excretion and cuts the dietary calcium requirements and reduces the risk of osteoporosis. [Am J Clin Nutr, 1996;63:735-40. 24770 (1997)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Tai Chi

Tai Chi 45 min/day, 5 d/week for 12 months. [Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2004; 85: 717-22. 41745 (2004)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Vitamin D2

Vitamin D2 125-250 ug/day (5,000 IU-10,000 IU/day) > 50% achieved adequate 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2006 May;60(5):681-7. 44369/44964 (8/2006)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis (see bone loss) - Vitamin K2

Vitamin K2 45 mg/d sustained vertebral BMD and reduced new fractures. [J Bone Mineral Res, 2000;15:515-521. 35612 (2000)] Summary Interview

Osteoporosis - calcium, copper, magnesium, vitamin D, zinc - 51010

Calcium 1000-1200 mg/d (major mineral in bone); copper 0.2-1.3 mg/day (collagen formation); magnesium 310-400 mg/day (crystallization of bone, vitamin D metabolism), and zinc 8-11 mg/day (enzymes for collagen and mineralization of bone) are all needed for healthy bones. [Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab. 2015 Jan-Apr; 12(1): 18–21. 51010 (11/2015)] Interview PubMed

Osteoporosis - carotenoids, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin - 50216

Higher serum levels of carotenoids, specifically β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene, in post-menopausal were inversely related to osteoporosis in later years. β-carotene exists in abundance in green and yellow vegetables. β-cryptoxanthin is especially high in Japanese mandarin oranges (Satsuma mandarin). [ PLoS One, 2012;7(12):e52643. 50216 (8/2013)] Interview PubMed

Osteoporosis - vitamin e - 50300

Low vitamin E intake and serum levels in elderly women were associated with increased fracture risk. Low intakes of vitamin E were associated with higher risk of low bone mass/osteoporosis and low muscle mass/sarcopenia. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 January;99(1):107–114. 50300 (2/2014)] Interview PubMed

Otitis Media - Antibiotic treatment

Antibiotic treatment evidence is lacking: 80% will resolve without antibiotics. Dutch protocol - children ages two and above are treated with pain relieving medications and observation for a period of three days. If no improvement antimicrobials may be given or observation is continued. Same treatment for children under age two with the exception of a mandatory contact with patient by either a visit or telephone after 24 hours. [British Medical Journal, July 12, 1997;315:98-102. 28177 (1997)] Summary Interview

Otitis Media - Elimination diet

Food elimination diet of cows milk, wheat, egg white, peanut, soy, orange, tomato, chicken and apple. [Ann Allergy, September 1994;73:215-219. 20995 (1996)] Summary Interview

Otitis Media - Food allergy

Food allergy a cause of. [Ann Allergy, September 1994;73:215-219. 20995 (1996)] Summary Interview
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