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Expert Pearls
Letter "P"
Categories beginning with "P"

Pain

Pain (musculoskeletal)

Pain (Neuropathic)

Pancreatitis

Panic Disorder

Parkinson's Disease

Pelvic Pain

Pemphigus (bullous)

Periodontitis /Periodontal Disease

Peripheral Vascular Disease

Pernicious Anemia

Pet Therapy

Peyronie's Disease

Phenylketonuria

Physical Performance

Phytoestrogens

Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris

Platelet Aggregation

Pneumonia

Poisoning

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Portal Hypertension

Pre-Eclampsia

Pregnancy

Premature Delivery

Premature Graying

Premature Infant

Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes (PROM)

Premenstrual Syndrome

Probiotics

Prostatitis

Psoriasis

Psychomotor Development

Pulmonary Artery Hypertension

 

Entries beginning with "P"

Pain (musculoskeletal) - Vitamin D

Vitamin D deficiency less 20 ng/ml 25 OH vitamin D by RIA. 30 ng/ml or greater is goal. [Mayo Clin Proc, 2003;78:1463-1470. 41133 (2004)] Summary Interview

Pain (musculoskeletal) - Vitamin D2

Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) 50,000 IU P.O. twice per week with monthly followup. May prescribe dose for up to 6 months before vitamin D status normalizes as judged by the PTH. Doubling the recommended vitamin D intake to 800 or 1200 IU per day is not sufficient for people already low. [Mayo Clin Proc, 2003;78:1463-1470. 41133 (2004) Summary Interview

Pain (Neuropthic) - omega-3 fatty acids - 47740

EPA ≥ 400 mg and DHA ≥200 mg per capsule, starting at 1-2 capsules per day titrating up to as high as 2 capsules for every 50 pounds of body weight in divided doses. Capsules may be frozen and taken with food to minimize gastrointestinal side-effects. [Clin J Pain, 2010;26(2):168-72. 47740 (3/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pain - anxiety, inflammation, melatonin, sleep, surgery - 50788

Melatonin given perioperatively between 2-10 mg in a single or multiple doses throughout the day, up to possibly 300 mg/kg/bw, has analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and sleep normalizing effects, and an excellent safety profile, any of which may significantly improve quality of life in surgical patients. [Anaesthesia. 2014 Oct;69(10):1163-71. 50788 (5/2105)] Interview PubMed

Pancreatitis (acute) - prebiotic - 45426

Prebiotic fiber at 15 grams of fructooligosaccharide per day fed through nasojejunal feeding tubes reduced length of hospital stay and infection rate in subjects with acute pancreatitis. [World J Gastroenterol, 2007;13(19): 2733-7. 45426 (5/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pancreatitis (acute) - selenium - 22503

Selenium 1000 mcg (from sodium selenite) in 3 to 6 liters of intravenous fluids with carbohydrates and electrolytes (no calcium) on the first day; second day 500 mcg. Analgesics via enemas 3 times per day. Efficacy of treatment can be seen by the rapid lowering of malondialdehyde in the blood and the normalization of calcium values. After motility of the colon returns give orally; vitamin E 400 I.U., beta-carotene 15 mg, vitamin C 500 mg two times a day, methionine 400 mg, zinc 50 mg, magnesium 600 mg, vitamin B6 20 mg, selenium 200 mcg (selenomethionine), N-acetylcysteine 600 mg (3 200 mg tablets) and folic acid 500 mcg. [Med. Klin., 1995;90:Suppl. I:36-41. 22503 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pancreatitis (chronic) - antioxidant therapy - 31928

Antioxidant therapy using selenium, vitamins C and E, and glutathione inducers such as N-acetylcysteine have potential benefit. [Digestion 1998;59 (Suppl. 4):13-24. 31928 (1999)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pancreatitis (chronic) - antioxidants - 32819

Antioxidants - patients had significantly lower plasma concentrations of selenium, vitamin A, vitamin E, beta-carotene, xanthine, beta-cryptoxanthine and lycopene than control subjects and patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. [Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:2135-2140. 32819 (1999)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pancreatitis (chronic) - antioxidants/oxidant stress - 22503

Antioxidants/oxidant stress low plasma concentrations of glutathione, selenium, vitamins C and E and methionine, and high concentrations of TBARS in all forms of pancreatitis. [Med. Klin., 1995;90:Suppl. I:36-41. 22503 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pancreatitis (chronic) - glutathione - 31928

Glutathione - low levels in pancreatitis. [Digestion 1998;59(Suppl. 4):13-24. 31928 (1999)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pancreatitis (chronic) - xenobiotic exposure - 31928

Xenobiotic exposure. [Digestion 1998;59(Suppl. 4):13-24. 31928 (1999)] Summary Interview PubMed

Panic Disorder - Inositol

Inositol 6-12 gm/d of oral powder mixed in juice. [Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 1995;31:167-175. 23703 (1995)] Summary Interview

Parkinson's Disease - acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, melatonin - 50271

Melatonin (slow-release) 2mg at night; plus alpha lipoic acid 200-400 mg per day and acetyl-L-carnitine 250-500 mg per day, both taken together, starting with the lower dose, right after a meal, and in divided doses for the higher dose; plus Coenzyme Q10 200 mg per day, rising slowly (month by month) until control is achieved, not exceeding 800 mg maximum per day, in divided doses, then 200-400 mg per day as maintenance dose / in divided doses; plus vitamin E (400IU once a day with coenzyme Q); and acetyl-L-carnitine 250 mg at night is a safe combination therapy and should be continued for a year before seeing appreciable disease control. [Neurobiol Aging, 2013 Oct 10. [Epub ahead of print] 50271] Interview PubMed

Parkinson's Disease - coq10 - 49828

CoQ10 (ubiquinone and ubiquinol) 400-2400 mg per day in a single dose with meals in early Parkinson’s disease patients reduced symptoms and oxidative stress after 2 weeks, except the 2400 mg increased F2-isoprostanes (oxidative stress marker). There were no side effects and compliance was high. [Antiox Redox Signal, 2014 Jan 11; [Epub ahead of print]. 49828 (4/2014)] Summary Interview PubMed

Parkinson's Disease - n-acetylcysteine - 50745

N-acetylcysteine orally at 35 mg/kg and 70 mg/kg given twice daily for two days in either 1) liquid form (20% solution, USP verified), or 2) capsule form (compounded by the UCSF pharmacy using USP verified NAC in powder form) usually with food, showed a dose dependent rise in CSF NAC and was well tolerated. [Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2015 Feb 28. 50745 (4/2015)] Interview PubMed

Parkinson’s Disease - Glutathione

Glutathione (reduced) 600 mg intravenously (I.V.) twice daily for 30 days resulted in 42% decline in disability. The improvement was seen after 3 weeks and particularly significant for rigidity and hypokinesia. Once GSH was stopped the therapeutic effect lasted for 2-4 months. [Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol & Biol Psychiat 1996;20:1159-1170. 34377 (2000)] Summary Interview

Parkinson’s Disease - Glutathione - 2

Glutathione parenterally, usually intravenously. [J Applied Nutr, 1999;51(1):3-15. 34948 (2000)] Summary Interview

Parkinson’s Disease - Glutathione - 3

Glutathione - significant decrease in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) in substantia nigra. [Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol & Biol Psychiat 1996;20:1159-1170. 34377 (2000)] Summary Interview

Parkinson’s Disease - Mitochondria

Mitochondrial energy production deficit (acetyl-l-carnitine, CoQ10, phosphatidylserine, magnesium enhance mitochondrial ATP production). [J Applied Nutr, 1999;51(1):3-15. 34948 (2000)] Summary Interview

Parkinson’s Disease - Pesticide

Pesticide exposure. [J Applied Nutr, 1999;51(1):3-15. 34948 (2000)] Summary Interview

Parkinson’s Disease - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) drugs + rTMS (1 Hz, 0.6 T, 100 stimuli per day for 7 days using a round coil). rTMS was repeated at least twice each year for 3 years. [Brain Research Bulletin, 2004;64:259-263. 42403 (01/2005)] Summary Interview

Parkinson’s Disease - caffeine, coffee - 50531

Coffee drinking/caffeine intake was protective against Parkinson’s disease and those with GRIN2A genotype may receive additional benefit from coffee/caffeine intake. [PLoS One. 2014 Jun 10;9(6): e99294. 50531 (10/2014)] Interview PubMed

Pelvic Pain - deprox 500, b vitamins, flower pollen - 50670

DEPROX 500® capsules two in the evening after dinner daily with each dose (2 capsules) containing vitamins: B1 - 1.4 mg; B2 – 1.6 mg; B6 – 2.0 mg; B12 – 1 mcg; folic acid – 300 mcg; PP (B3) – 18 mg and flower pollen extract 1000 mg significantly improved total symptoms, pain and QoLin patients with chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) without severe side effects. [ Exp Ther Med. 2014 Oct;8(4):1032-1038. 50670 (3/2105)] Interview PubMed

Pemphigus (bullous) - Nicotinamide

Nicotinamide 500 mg t.i.d. with tetracycline 500 mg q.i.d.. [Arch Dermatol, June 1994;130:753-758. 20381 (1996)] Summary Interview

Periodontitis /Periodontal Disease - erectile dysfunction - 50171

Vasculogenic erectile dysfunction (VED) can be affected by chronic periodontitis do to inflammatory cytokines released that can negatively affect endothelial dysfunction of the small vessels in the penis. Diets that are rich in protein, whole grains, fiber, vitamins, minerals and PUFAs have positive effects on periodontal health and can improve endothelial function and reduce vulnerability to VED. [J Periodonto, 2011 Dec;82(12):1665-9. 50171 (4/2013)] Interview PubMed

Periodontitis /Periodontal Disease -diabetes, zinc - 50739

Zinc insufficiency as measured in the serum, saliva or gingival tissues in individuals with both periodontitis and diabetes may warrant supplementation and be beneficial in both these conditions. [Curr Diabetes Rev. 2014;10 (6):397-401. 50739 (4/2015)] Interview PubMed

Periodontitis/Periodontal Disease (see also gingivitis) - Exercise

Exercise (regular) reduces risk. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6):1395-400. 44364/45034 (7/2006)] Summary Interview

Periodontitis/Periodontal Disease (see also gingivitis) - LycoRed™

LycoRed™ (100% natural lycopene with added phytoene, phytofluene, carotene, phytosterols, vitamin E) 8 mg/d in four divided doses of 2 mg in soft gels before meals. [Oral Health Prev Dent, 2007; 5(4): 327-36. 46229 (6/2008)] Summary Interview

Periodontitis/Periodontal Disease (see also gingivitis) - Melatonin

Melatonin mouthwash, dental cream or oral cleanser. [J Periodontol, 2006; 77 (9):1533-1538. 44597 (1/2007)] Summary Interview

Periodontitis/Periodontal Disease (see also gingivitis) - Oxidative stress

Oxidative stress to local tissue caused by neutrophil response to bacteria and their metabolites. Antioxidants may be of benefit. [J Clin Pathol, Molec Pathol, 1996;49:M247-M255. 26290 (1997)] Summary Interview

Periodontitis/Periodontal Disease (see also gingivitis) - Whole grains

Whole grains - 3-4 servings per day (without consuming more calories) reduced periodontitis risk (1 serving of whole grain is 1 slice of whole grain bread or ¾ cup whole grain cereal). [Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jun;83(6):1395-400. 44364/45034 (7/2006)] Summary Interview

Periodontitis/Periodontal Disease - fruit, vegetable, juice plus - 50023

"Juice Plus +®" capsules containing powdered fruit and vegetable (FV) concentrates providing daily β-carotene 7.5 mg, vitamin E 46 mg, vitamin C 200 mg and folic acid 400 µg, and/or fruit, vegetable and berry (FVB) capsules, similar to the FV capsules, but also contain concentrates from blackberry, blueberry, black current, bilberry, elderberry, concord grape, raspberry, red currant, green tea, ginger root, artichoke leaf, grape seed extract, with additional arginine, carnitine and co-enzyme Q10 providing declared totals (per daily dose) β-carotene 7.5 mg, vitamin E 66 mg, vitamin C 222 mg and folic acid 640 µg, and both (FV & FVB) taken with food in 2-divided doses of 3 capsules morning and evening. [ J Clin Periodontol, 2012 Jan;39(1):62-72. 50023 (2/2012)] Interview PubMed

Peripheral Vascular Disease - Arginine

Arginine 3-6 gm/d (approximate dosage). [Amino Acids, 2000;18:199-206. 35909 (2000)] Summary

Peripheral Vascular Disease - Carnitine

Carnitine - Proprionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) 6 gms I.V. over 12 hours. [Eur Heart J, 2007; 28(5): 608-12. 45112 (6/2007)] Summary Interview

Peripheral Vascular Disease - Carnitine - 2

Carnitine - Proprionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) 6 gms I.V. over 12 hours. [J Vasc Surg, 2006; 44(3): 525-30. 44615 (11/2006)] Summary Interview

Peripheral Vascular Disease - Carnitine - 3

Carnitine - Proprionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) 2 gm/d x 8 days showed no increase in muscular and subcutaneous blood flow of the lower limbs. [Clinical Physiology, 1995;15:417-423. 24186 (1997)] Summary Interview

Peripheral Vascular Disease - Tai Chi

Tai Chi 5-10 min/d (30 min/d optimal). [Arch Phys Med Rehabil, September 2001;82:1176-1180. 38260 (2001)] Summary Interview

Pernicious Anemia - Pernicious anemia

Pernicious anemia is common in autoimmune thyroid disease. [Am J Med Sci; 2006; 332(3):119-22. 45530 (12/2007)] Summary Interview

Pet Therapy - Aging patients

Beneficial for aging patients. [Am J Occupat Therapy, Jan. 1996;50(1):47-51. 23982 (1997)] Summary Interview

Peyronie's Disease - vitamin e, blueberries, propolis - 50257

Vitamin E 300 mg 2 x daily after meals along with verapamil (injection + iontophoresis) +  blueberries + propolis + topical diclofenac reduced plaque size; improved penile curvature; and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire scores. Maybe 5% had mild digestive complaints. Side effects were minimal.

[Andrology. 2013 Jan;1(1):120-8. 50257 (11/2013)] Interview PubMed

Phenylketonuria - LCPUFA

LCPUFA (arachidonic acid 0.7% and docosahexaenoic acid 0.3% total fats) enriched formula for PKU supplied through the first twelve months of life maintained high DHA levels. [Dev Med Child Neurol, 2006 Mar;48(3):207-12. 44164/44666 (4/2006)] Summary Interview

Physical Performance - interval training - 49462

Interval walking for 60 minutes, 5 days per week in type 2 diabetics, defined as alternating between 3 minutes of high speed walking and 3-minutes of low speed walking (high speed walking is the equivalent of the fastest speed you can possibly walk without breaking into a jog), showed statistically-significant improvements in body weight, abdominal visceral adiposity, VO2 peak, LDL-cholesterol, fasting insulin, and CGM glucose. The continuous walking group showed no improvement, but had no decline in the above parameters. The control group showed a decline in the above parameters. [Diabetes Care, 2012 Sept 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 49462 (2/20013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Physical Performance - pycnogenol® - 50352

Pycnogenol® 50 mg tablets, 2 and 3 tablets daily in those performing an Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) Test and 100-Minute Triathlon respectively, at 8 weeks in the APFT there was a reduced time in the 2 mile run of two minutes and an increase in push-up and sit-up endurance of 25 and 15 percent respectively compared to controls. In the 100-Minute Triathlon group at 30 days there was a significant increase in speed and strength (100 minute triathlon time: 1:40:24 to 1:29:44) and reduction in muscular cramping and controlled oxidative stress compared to controls. [J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013 Dec;53(6):644-54. 50352 (8/2104)] Interview PubMed

Physical Performance - Walking

Walking distance in elderly improved - amino acids mixture 12 gm/d (L -leucine 3.8, L- lysine 2, L -isoleucine 1.9, L-valine 1.9, L -threonine 1.1, L -cystine 0.4, L-histidine 0.4, L -phenylalanine 0.3, L -methionine 0.2, L -tyrosine 0.1 and L -tryptophan 0.1). [Gerontology, 2005 Sep-Oct;51(5):302-8. 42895/43681 (11/2005)] Summary Interview

Phytoestrogens - Menopausal symptoms, cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, cancer risk

Phytoestrogens have been used for: menopausal symptoms; lower total and LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides and increase HDL cholesterol; reduce prostate, breast and colon cancer risk. [Med J Australia, August 4, 1997;167:119-120. 28055 (1997)] Summary Interview

Phytoestrogens - Plants

More than 300 plants have been demonstrated to possess estrogenic activity. Phytoestrogens have a steroidal structure and their estrogenic activity is due to hydroxyl groups located on the cyclic rings, with the distance between the hydroxyl groups similar to that of estradiol. There are three main classes of phytoestrogens: isoflavones from legumes (soy has highest level of isoflavones); lignans are found in plants with linseed containing the highest levels of lignan plant precursors; and coumestans. Estrogenically active isoflavones and lignans include daidzein, genistein, equol and matairesinol and secoisolariciresinol, respectively. [Med J Australia, August 4, 1997;167:119-120. 28055 (1997)] Summary Interview

Pityriasis Rubra Pilaris - Folic acid

Folic acid 2.5 mg/day, vitamins B6 50 mg/day and vitamin B12 1 mg/day (in case of concurrent methotrexate therapy supplementation with 15 mg of calcium folinate the day after the administration of methotrexate). [J Dermatolog Treat, 2007;18(3):138-46. 45996 (11/2007)] Summary Interview

Platelet Aggregation - arginine - 35909

Arginine 3-20 gm/d (approximate dosage). [Amino Acids, 2000;18:199-206. 35909 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

Platelet Aggregation - berries - 46352

Berries 1 cup/d (black currants, bilberries, lingonberries and chokeberries, a small amounts of strawberries and raspberries). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2008 Feb;87(2):323-31. 46352 (3/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

Platelet Aggregation - omega-3 fatty acids - 47903

Omega-3 fatty acid ethyl esters containing 465 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 375 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (1 capsule) in the morning after breakfast augmented the reduction in platelet aggregation of aspirin and clopidogrel with mild but no additional side effects. [J Am Coll Cardiol, 2010 April 10, 55(16):1671-8. 47903 (5/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pneumonia - ginger - 47775

Ginger extract - 120 mg in divided doses with three meals during tube feeding in ARDS patients. [J Crit Care, 2010 Feb 9; [Epub ahead of print]. 47775 (4/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pneumonia - lactobacillus plantarum - 46796

Lactobacillus plantarum 299 (Lp299) x 1010 colony-forming units (CFU) swab to oral mucosa in mechanically ventilated patients. [Critical Care, 2008;12:R136. 46796 (12/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pneumonia - vitamin c - 30783 / 45855

Vitamin C as ascorbic acid .5-2 gm/d in a single dose prevented pneumonia and reduced hospital stay. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1): CD005532. 30783 / 45855 (10/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

Poisoning (acetaminophen toxicity) - n-acetylcysteine - 50370

N-acetylcysteine may be beneficial in a wide range of conditions with oxidative stress and depleted intracellular glutathione including acetaminophen overdose, diabetic atherothrombosis, cystic fibrosis and contrast-induced nephropathy. It’s effectiveness may be dose-dependent with the degree of glutathione depletion. In acetaminophen overdose dosing has been three consecutive intravenous infusions of 150, 50, 100 mg/kg respectively each over 1 hour and oral and nebulized doses between 700-2800 mg/d. [Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Feb;141(2):150-9. 50370 (6/2014)] Interview PubMed

Poisoning (digitalis) - Magnesium

Magnesium intravenously. [J Am Coll Nutr, 1994;13(5):496-498. 21220 (1995)] Interview

Poisoning (organophosphorus insecticides) - MgS04

MgS04 4 gms I.V. in the first 24 hrs along with normal emergency protocols reduced mortality to 0% while the control group mortality was15% and reduced hospital days to 3 instead of 5 in the control group. [Human Exp Toxicol, 2004;23:565-569. 42723 (03/2005)] Summary Interview

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) - chromium picolinate - 44692

Chromium picolinate 500 mcg b.i.d. with meals. [Fertil Steril, 2006; 86(1):243-6. 44692 (1/2007)] Summary Interview

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) - folic acid, metformin - 47613

Folic acid at 400 mcg/d with metformin at 1700 mg/d reduced the slight increase in homocysteine levels with metformin alone and maintained the positive effect that metformin has on endothelial function in PCOS subjects. [Diabetes Care, 2009 Nov 23; [Epub ahead of print]. 47613 (01/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) - spearmint tea - 45091

Spearmint tea - A cup spearmint tea (steeped with M. Spicata) twice a day for 5 days during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, showed after 5 days a significant decrease in free testosterone levels. [Phytother Res, 2007 Feb 20; [Epub ahead of print]. 45091 (5/2007)] Summary

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome - folic acid, inositol - 50771

Inositol as 4 grams of myo-inositol/day plus 400 mcg of folic acid/day or 1 gram of D-chiro-inositol/day plus 400 mcg of folic acid/day orally improved ovarian function and metabolism. Myo-inositol showed the most marked effect on the metabolic profile, whereas D-chiro-inositol reduced hyperandrogenism better. [Gynecol Endocrinol. 2014 Mar;30(3):205-8. 50771 (5/2105)] Interview PubMed

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome - n-acetylcysteine - 50904

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) 1200-1800 mg/day divided into 2-3 doses after the meals in women with PCOS resulted in a higher odds of ovulation, getting pregnant and having a live birth as compared to placebo. NAC therapy is well tolerated with good patient compliance. [Obstet Gynecol Int. 2015;2015:817849. 50904 (9/2015)] Interview PubMed

Portal Hypertension - Vitamin A

Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension may occur with chronic ingestion of vitamin A at 150 x 106 IU/d. [Am J Med, April 1995;98(4) 424. 22235 (1995)] Interview

Pre-eclampsia - antioxidants - 21510

Antioxidants - decreased levels of vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene. [Am J Repro Immunol, 1994;32: 221-225. 21510 (1996)] Summary Interview

Pre-Eclampsia - arginine, vitamin c, vitamin e - 48694

L-arginine 3.5 g, vitamin C 250 mg and vitamin E 200 IU in a medical food bar taken with meals in a single dose. [British Medical Journal, 2011 May 19; [Epub ahead of print]. 48694 (7/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pre-eclampsia - calcium - 23717

Calcium 1.5-2 gm/d for prevention. [Medical Hypothesis, 1995; 45:68-72. 23717 (1995)] Summary Interview

Pre-eclampsia - calcium - 46928

Calcium from calcium carbonate 500 mg (elemental calcium) per tablet, 2 B.I.D. with meals reduced premature deliveries. Summary – Interview - PubMed - [Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 2008;104(1):32-6. 46928 (2/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pre-eclampsia - calcium - 46928

Calcium from calcium carbonate 500 mg (elemental calcium) per tablet, 2 B.I.D. with meals reduced premature deliveries. [Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 2008;104(1):32-6. 46928 (2/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pre-eclampsia - coenzyme q10 - 46952

CoQ10 100 mg B.I.D. after breakfast and after dinner starting from week 20 of pregnancy until delivery. [Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 2009;105:43-45. 46952 (6/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pre-eclampsia - diet - 22627/25667/29581/20802

Diet - vegetarians and populations that eat fish-based diets have low incidence of preeclampsia. [Hypertension In Pregnancy, 1994;13(1):1-32. 22627, 25667, 29581/20802 (1996)] Summary Interview

Pre-eclampsia - lipid peroxides - 22627/25667/29581/20802

Lipid peroxides increased in pregnancy-induced hypertension. [Hypertension In Pregnancy, 1994;13(1):1-32. 22627/25667/29581/20802 (1996)] Summary Interview

Pre-Eclampsia - magnesium citrate - 49655

Magnesium citrate powder 300 mg (elemental magnesium) taken once daily in water starting at week 25 of pregnancy showed a reduction in diastolic blood pressure. [Arch Gynecol Obstet, 2013 May 30; [Epub ahead of print]. 49655 (7/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pre-Eclampsia - probiotics - 48864

Yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG or probiotic milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 at 108 (100 million) probiotic bacteria/mL, which corresponds to ≈ 1.4 x 1010 (14 billion) to 1.6 x 1011 (160 billion) probiotic bacteria per day in subjects consuming one serving of milk or yogurt daily. [American Journal of Epidemiology, Oct 1, 2011;174(7):807-15. 2011. 48864 (10/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pre-eclampsia - selenium - 48166

Selenium 100 mcg per day with meals (selenocysteine). [Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol, 2010;49(2): 181-187. 48166 (12/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pre-eclampsia - vitamin c - 37754A / 40283 / 44234/ 37617

Vitamin C 1000mg/day and vitamin E 400 IU RRR-a-tocopherol/day (reduce risk). [Lancet 1999; 354:810-816/ Acta Paediatr (Suppl), 2001;9492:1-3. 37754A/40283/44234/37617 (2001)] Summary Interview

Pre-eclampsia - vitamin d - 45850/45157

Vitamin D 1000-2000 IU/d (prevention). [Nutr Rev. 2005 Jul;63(7):225-32. 45850/45157 (9/2006)] Summary Interview

Pregnancy - homocysteine - 22217

Homocysteine is a valuable screen for folic acid and vitamin B12 deficiency. [Am J Hematology, 1995;48:251-255. 22217 (1995)] Interview PubMed

Pregnancy - DHA, EPA, Salmon - 48957

Salmon two portions per week equaling 1.8 g of combined EPA plus DHA per portion (500 mg/d of omega-3 fatty acids. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2011, 94, 1418-1425. 48957 (12/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pregnancy - diabetes mellitus - vitamin d3 - 48966

Vitamin D3 in serum of pregnant females was inversely related to diabetes type 1 incidence. Development before the age of 15 was more than twofold higher for the offspring of women with the lowest levels of vitamin D compared to the offspring of those with levels above the upper quartile. [Diabetes, January, 2012;61(1):175-8. 48966 (1/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pregnancy - probiotic - lactobacillus rhamnosus gg - bifidobacterium lactis bb12 - 47769

Probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 at 1010 CFU per day of each strain in capsules given once daily in healthy pregnant females from the first trimester through the end of exclusive breast feeding was safe and reduced the incidence of gestational diabetes. [ Br J Nutr., 2010 Feb 4:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]. 47769 (4/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Premature Delivery - vitamin d - 49003

Hypovitaminosis D in perinatal Japanese females (25-OHD concentration ≤ 20 ng/ml), was found in 85 mothers (89.5%). Serum 25-OHD levels were negatively associated with serum type I collagen NTx and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Mothers with threatened premature delivery had significantly lower 25-OHD levels (11.2 ± 3.2 ng/ml) than those in mothers with normal delivery (15.6 ± 5.1 ng/ml).

[J Bone Miner Metab, 2011 Sept; 29(5): 615-20. 49003 (2/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Premature Graying - Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis was 4½ times more likely in subjects with premature graying. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1994;79(3):854-857. 21006 (1996)] Summary Interview

Premature Infant - Cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy risk is increased. [Pediatrics, February 1995;95(2):263-269. 21802 (1996)] Summary Interview

Premature Infant - Intestinal permeability

Intestinal permeability is increased. [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 17930, 20842/20482 (1995)] Summary Interview

Premature Infant - progesterone, saliva testing - 50951

Preterm birth (PTB) risk can be assessed by the use of salivary hormone (progesterone) testing (lower levels increase risk). Progesterone therapy may reduce the risk of PTB. Salivary progesterone will be a standard risk assessment tool in the near future for high risk PTB pregnancies. [J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Aug 14:1-5. [Epub ahead of print] 50951 (9/2015)] Interview PubMed

Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes (PROM) - Beta-carotene and vitamin C

Beta-carotene and vitamin C may be of benefit in prevention of PROM, especially in smokers. Premenstrual Syndrome [Intern J Vitamin Nutr Res, 1994;64:192-197. 21209 (1996)] Summary Interview

Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes (PROM) - Kami-shoyo-san

Kami-shoyo-san (TJ-24) (Japanese herbal medicine) 2.5 gms t.i.d. x 6 menstrual cycles. [J Clin Psychopharmacol, August 2002;22(4):442. 39851 (2002)] Summary Interview

Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes (PROM) - Vegan diet

Vegan diet - whole grains, vegetables, fruits and legumes (omitted nuts and seeds) and kept oils to a minimum with a multivitamin with adequate B12. [Obstet Gynecol 2000;95:245-250. 34237 (2000)] Summary Interview

Premature Rupture of Fetal Membranes (PROM) - Vitex agnus castu

Vitex agnus castus (Chasteberry, Chaste tree berry, Monk’s pepper or Vitex) 40 mg q.d. - b.i.d. (especially for symptoms of mastodynia). [J Women’s Health Gender-Based Med, 2000;9(3):315-320. 35160 (2000)] Summary

Probiotics - Hospital costs

Hospital costs may be reduce from complications of medications and infections. [Gut, 1998;42:2-7. 29564 (1998)] Summary

Prostatitis - deprox 500, b vitamins, flower pollen - 50670

DEPROX 500® capsules two in the evening after dinner daily with each dose (2 capsules) containing vitamins: B1 - 1.4 mg; B2 – 1.6 mg; B6 – 2.0 mg; B12 – 1 mcg; folic acid – 300 mcg; PP (B3) – 18 mg and flower pollen extract 1000 mg significantly improved total symptoms, pain and QoLin patients with chronic prostatitis and chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) without severe side effects. [ Exp Ther Med. 2014 Oct;8(4):1032-1038. 50670 (3/2105)] Interview PubMed

Psoriasis - Diet

Diet - protective effect from consumption of carrots, tomatoes, fresh fruit and, to a lesser extent, green vegetables. These foods are sources of carotenoids, vitamins C and E. [Br J Dermatol,1996;34:101-106. 24166 (1997)] Summary Interview

Psoriasis - Folic acid

Folic acid 2.5 mg/day, vitamins B6 50 mg/day and vitamin B12 1 mg/day (in case of concurrent methotrexate therapy supplementation with 15 mg of calcium folinate the day after the administration of methotrexate). [J Dermatolog Treat, 2007;18(3):138-46. 44991/45996 (11/2007)] Summary Interview

Psoriasis - Vitamin D

Vitamin D - low serum levels are a risk factor. [Br J Dermatol,1996;34:101-106. 24166 (1997)] Summary Interview

Psychomotor Development - hydroxycobalamin - 49775

Hydroxycobalamin 400 ug IM once in infants with feeding difficulties, subtle neurologic symptoms, or delayed psychomotor development with biochemical signs of impaired cobalamin function, defined as a plasma tHcy concentration ≥6.5 μmol/L, showed improvement in all markers of impaired cobalamin status (ie, plasma tHcy decreased by 54%, and MMA decreased by 84%) and a median (IQR) increase in the Alberta Infants Motor Scale (AIMS) score and a higher proportion had improvements in regurgitations (69% compared with 29%, respectively). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2013 Sept 11;[Epub ahead of print]. 49775 (12/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Pulmonary Artery Hypertension - coenzyme q10 - 51025

Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinol) 100 mg by mouth three times daily in subjects with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) improved self-described energy, hemoglobin and red cell maturation, and cardiac parameters shown by improved echocardiographic changes. [Redox Biol. 2014 Jul 31;2:884-91. 51025 (10/2015)] Interview PubMed
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