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Expert Pearls
Letter "R"
Categories beginning with "R"


Radiation Exposure


Restless Leg Syndrome

Retinitis Pigmentosa


Rheumatic Disease

Rheumatic Disease

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rhinitis (allergic)


Entries beginning with "R"

Rabies - Vitamin C

Vitamin C 2 gm dissolved in water P.O. in a single dose taken together with the first dose of the rabies vaccine after the bite of animals in rabies endemic areas induced detectable levels of interferon in all treated patients, while the rabies vaccine alone showed no influence on the production of IFN-α in most of the patients vaccinated. [Swiss Med Wkly, 2004;134:326-327. 42167 (12/2004)] Summary Interview

Radiation Exposure - Beta-carotene

Beta-carotene - 2 20 mg natural beta-carotene capsules/d (each hard gel capsule of 250 Dunaliella powder contained 20 mg beta-carotene). [Radiat Environ Biophys, 1998;37:187-193. 32084 (1999)] Summary Interview

Renal Failure (hemodialysis) - Carnitine

Carnitine (L-) I.V. at 20 mg/kg/d over 2-3 minutes after end of every hemodialysis treatment session. [Indian J Med Sci, 200; 60(4):143-53. 44507 (10/2006)] Summary Interview

Renal Failure (hemodialysis) - Carnitine - 2

Carnitine (L-) 3 gm/d. [Cardiovas Drugs Ther, 1999;13:537-546. 35944 (1999)] Summary Interview

Renal Failure (hemodialysis) - Hyperhomocysteinemia, folic acid, vitamin B-6, vitamin B12

Hyperhomocysteinemia treated with folic acid 1 mg/d, vitamin B-6 10 mg/d and vitamin B12 12 ug/d; an additional 30% non-fasting homocysteine reduction occurs in non-fasting hemodialysis patients with the addition of folic acid 15 mg/d, vitamin B-6 100 mg/d and vitamin B12 1 mg/d. [Kidney International, 1996;49:147-152. 24342 (1996)] Summary Interview

Renal Failure/Insufficiency (chronic) - Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 (QGel™) 30 mg, 2 caps 3 x daily. [J Nutr Environ Med, 2000;10:281-288. 36843 (2001)] Summary

Renal Failure/Insufficiency (chronic) - Protein

Protein intake 0.6 gm/d/kg body weight (lowering the amount of protein intake reduces the risk of end stage renal disease, i.e. reaching the need for dialysis, by 30% in most diabetic and non-diabetic patients; should not be done in those excreting more than 10 gms/d). [Ann Intern Med, April 1, 1996;124(7):627-632. 24530 (1996)] Summary Interview

Renal Failure/Insufficiency (chronic) - Protein - 2

Protein (30% soy protein, 35% textured soy protein and 35% animal protein) .8 mg/kg/d. [Diabetes Care, 2008; 31(4): 648-54 in diabetics. 46326 (8/2008)] Summary Interview

Renal Failure/Insufficiency (chronic) - Vitamin E

Vitamin E 300 to 800 IU/d. [Redox Report, 1997;3(5/6):259-261. 31002 (1999)] Summary Interview

Renal Function - Magnesium

Magnesium deficiency (lower [Mg2+]) is associated with a faster renal function deterioration rate in DMII patients. [Clin Nephrology, July 2005;63(6):429-436. 43396 (8/2005)] Summary Interview

Renal Function - N-acetylcysteine

N-acetylcysteine 150 mg/kg and then 15 mg/kg/hr from a continuous I.V. infusion inhibited the adverse effects of E. coli endotoxin on renal function. [Crit Care Med, 2007; 35(8):1869-75. 46020 (7/2008)] Summary Interview

Restless Leg Syndrome - Melatonin

Melatonin may benefit some cases. [Developmental Medicine Child Neurology, 2004;46:776-782. 42513 (02/2005)] Summary Interview

Retinitis Pigmentosa - Vitamin/mineral, taurine, bilberry and zinc

Multiple vitamin/mineral, taurine 750 mg/d, bilberry 300 mg/d and zinc 50 mg/d. Five minutes of electrical stimulation to each eye at weekly then at monthly office visits. The electrical current was about 200 micro amperes at ±9 volts at 10 cycles per second. (Research device: a special hand held stimulator, with the output electrode at one end. When held in the patient's wet hand and the electrode is gently placed on the closed wet eye lid, a flicker will be seen. This indicates that the electricity is reaching the retina. For this study, a similar unit was used in the office. It can be sent home for a month or two for use several times a day to speed up the recovery of vision. Each eye is stimulated for a total of about five minutes. The small electrode is applied to the closed wet eyelids as follows: right upper lid for 2.5 minutes, right lower lid for 2.5 minutes, left upper lid for 2.5 minutes and finally to the left lower lid for 2.5 minutes. This can be repeated several times per day, if needed). [J Orthomolecular Med, 1998;13(1):41-43. 29828 (1998)] Summary Interview

Retinopahty - docosahexaenoic acid (dha) - 48450

DHA ranging from about 30 mg/kg/d (total intravenous lipid intake was 0.5g/kg/d) to about 200 mg/kg/d (total intravenous lipid intake was 3.5g/kg/d) given continuously as a 24 hour intravenous infusion (Omegaven contains DHA and EPA in a proportion of about 2:1) administered from the first day of life in VLBW infants reduced the need for laser therapy to treat retinopathy. [Pediatrics, 2011;127:223-228 48450 (05/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Retinopathy - curcuminoids, meriva - 49644

Meriva® 600 mg twice daily (Meriva® is 20% curcuminoids, the overall curcuminoid dosage was around 240 mg) with or away from meals showed significant benefit with good compliance. [Clin Opthalmol, 2013;7:939-45. 49644 (7/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Retinopathy - docosahexaenoic acid - 49739

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 60-200 mg/kg/day in a fish oil lipid emulsion given on the first day of life continuously by I.V. infusion over 21 hours each day in premature infants reduced the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), the need for ocular laser treatment, and cholestasis with no side effects.

[JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 2013 Aug 20; [Epub ahead of print]. 49739 (10/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Retinopathy - pycnogenol® - 38465

Pycnogenol® at 50 mg t.i.d.. [Phytother Res, 2001;15:219-223. 38465 (2002)] Summary Interview PubMed

Rheumatic Disease - Diet

Diet - reduce saturated fat from meat and increase “white meat” or fish. [Arthr Rheu., June 1994;37(6):824-825. 21724 (1995)] Summary Interview

Rheumatic Disease - Diet (anti-inflammatory)

Diet (anti-inflammatory) - low in arachidonic acid < 50 mg/d (eliminate meat and meat products, animal fat) and iron; vegetable-based diet rich in unrefined plant fats (gamma-linolenic & dihomo-gamma linolenic acids); rich in omega-3 fatty acids fish/fish oil and/or plants (soy, canola, walnut); promoters of oxygen radical formation should be avoided, e.g. cigarette smoking or excessive alcohol intake (except 1 glass of red wine). [Eur J Clin Nutr, 1995;49:703-717. 23942 (1997)] Summary Interview

Rheumatic Disease - Diet (anti-inflammatory) - 2

Diet (anti-inflammatory) - modified lacto-vegetarian diet; consumed only plant-derived fats and oils; no egg yolk, and dairy products with reduced fat; AA intake was reduced to <90 mg per day - meat intake was limited to a maximum of two servings of 120 g per week AND Menhaden oil capsules containing 245.3 mg (EPA, docosapentaenoic acid [DPA] and docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) per gram of fish oil and, for stabilization, 1.0 mg/g each of a-tocopherol and g-tocopherol, and 0.02 % of tertiary butylhydroquinone. Patients were given 1 capsule per 10 kg of body weight, which provided 30 mg of total fish oil n-3 fatty acids per kg of body weight. [Rheumatol Int, 2003;23:27-36. 41105 (2004)] Summary Interview

Rheumatic Disease - Fasting

Fasting - reduces arachidonic acid and reduces symptoms. This can also be achieved by a low arachidonic acid diet. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 1995;49:703-717. 23942 (1997)] Summary Interview

Rheumatic Disease - Fish oil

Fish oil 3 g/day plus olive oil 9.6 g/d. [Nutrition, 2005;21:131-136. 42917 (4/2005)] Summary Interview

Rheumatic Disease - Food intolerance

Food intolerance - commonly offending foods by patient history - meat and meat products, alcoholic beverages, sweets, cereals, coffee, chocolate, fruits and/or milk, positive anti-gliadin antibodies. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 1995;49:703-717. 23942 (1997)] Summary Interview

Rheumatic Disease - Nutritional supplements

Nutritional supplements - fish oil 2 gm/d or more; vitamin E 400 I.U. dl-alpha-tocopherol; selenium 200 mcg/d; vitamin D 1000 I.U./d; vitamin C 200 mg/d; vitamin A 6000 I.U./d; B vitamins 2 mg each/d; zinc 10-15 mg/d; iron 10-15 mg/d; copper 1.5-3 mg/d. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 1995;49:703-717. 23942 (1997)] Summary Interview

Rheumatic Disease - Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids 2.6 gm/d (6 capsules/d). [Arthr Rheu., June 1994;37(6):824-825. 21724 (1995)] Summary Interview

Rheumatic Disease - Vegetarian diets

Vegetarian diets have a greater effectiveness than meat-based diets in reducing rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. [Brit J Nutr, Nov 2000;85:589-595. 36643 (2001)] Summary Interview

Rheumatoid Arthritis - fish oil - 44613

Fish oil - 2 ml/kg (= 0.1 – 0.2 g fish oil/kg) fish oil emulsion (Omegaven®) intravenously over 4 hours on 7 consecutive days in addition to background therapy (100 ml of this preparation contained 6.56 g of n3-PUFA, comprising 2.82g, EPA (20:5), 3.09g DHA (22:6), 0.20g linolenic acid (18:3), and 0.45g docosapentaenoic acid (22:5))led to improvement of the disease activity status without side effects. [Lipids. 2006 Jan;41(1):29-34. 44613 (4/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Rheumatoid Arthritis - fish oil - 49786

Fish oil - 5.5 gm daily (Incromega TG3525 has 35% EPA and 25% DHA (7/12 of 5.5g was EPA and 5/12 was DHA) in a single daily dose of 10 mls of liquid oil layered on a small volume (25mls) of orange juice swallowed in one gulp on an empty stomach and washed down with a small glass of orange juice before consuming a solid meal, preferably at the end of the day, reduced repeating of the fishy taste. [Ann Rheum Dis, 2013 Sept 30; [Epub ahead of print]. 49786 (1/2014)] Summary Interview PubMed

Rheumatoid Arthritis - Meat fat

Meat fat consumption increases risk; vegetarian diets reduce risk. [Brit J Nutr, Nov 2000;85:589-595. 36643 (2001)] Summary Interview

Rheumatoid Arthritis - vitamin b6 - 48043

Pyridoxine-HCl tablets 100 mg daily (plus 5 mg folic acid) taken before breakfast reduced plasma IL-6 and TNF- levels (inflammatory markers).
[Eur J Clin Nutr, 2010;64:1007-1013. 48043 (5/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Rheumatoid Arthritis - vitamin d - 49495

Vitamin D3 deficiency < 50 nmols/l (20 ng/ml) was detected in 33.4% of the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and severe vitamin D deficiency < 15 nmoles/l (6 ng/ml) was detected in 5% of RA patients. In the severely deficient group, but not the deficient group, there was a higher percentage with a positive rheumatoid factor; higher CRP; higher number of patients treated with at least 3 disease modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs (DMARDs); a higher percentage with high disease activity DAS 28; lower age; and shorter disease duration. [Clin Rheumatol, 2013 Jan 15; [Epub ahead of prin]. 49495 (2/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Rhinitis (allergic) - Homeopathic remedy

Homeopathic remedy (traditional method of serial vibration and dilution to a typical ultra homeopathic dilution). [BMJ, August 19-26, 2000;321:471-476. 35963 (2000)] Summary Interview
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