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Expert Pearls
Letter "S"
Categories beginning with "S"

Salicylate Intolerance





Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)




Serous Otitis Media (see otitis media)

Sexual Activity/Behavior

Shock (septic shock)

Sickle Cell Anemia

Silicone Breast Implant Syndrome

Sleep Disorder


Soy Foods



Substance Abuse

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome




Syndrome X

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)


Entries beginning with "S"

Salicylate Intolerance - Fish oil

Fish oil 10 gm/d (1 gm = 180 mg EPA, 120 mg DHA) in three divided doses with meals. [Br J Dermatol, 2008 Sep 15; [Epub ahead of print]. 46668 (1/2009)] Summary

Salicylate Intolerance - Fish oil - 2

Fish oil 10 gm/d (1 gm = 180 mg EPA, 120 mg DHA) in three divided doses with meals. [Br J Dermatol, 2008 Sep 15; [Epub ahead of print]. 46668 (1/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sarcoidosis - Melatonin

Melatonin 20 mg at 8:00 p.m. q.d.. [The Lancet, November 4, 1995;346:229-230. 23549 (1995)] Summary Interview

Sarcopenia - creatine - 45920

Creatine 3 to 25gms/day with water or juice 1 hour before and immediately after working out (training days only). Cycle creatine supplementing 4-6 weeks on and then 4-6 weeks off creatine. [J Nutr Health Aging, 2007 Mar-Apr;11(2):185-8. 45920 (10/2007)] Summary Interview

Sarcopenia - creatine - 47670

Creatine at 5 gm qid for 1 week then gms per day. [Dyn Med, 2009 Dec 24; 8(1): 6. Epub ahead of print. 47670 (2/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sarcopenia - obesity - 43595

Obesity-associated inflammation may play an important role in the age-related pathway leading to sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was inversely related to inflammation. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2005 Aug;82(2):428-34. 43595 (9/2005)] Summary Interview

Sarcopenia - vitamin e - 50300

Low vitamin E intake and serum levels in elderly women were associated with increased fracture risk. Low intakes of vitamin E were associated with higher risk of low bone mass/osteoporosis and low muscle mass/sarcopenia. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 January;99(1):107–114. 50300 (2/2014)] Interview PubMed

Satiety - oligofructose - 47273

Oligofructose (pre-biotic) 7 gms t.i.d. in water or beverage 30 minutes before meals. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2009; 89(6): 1751-9. 47273 (7/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Satiety - rye - 46911

62 gms of rye flakes microwaved in water for 3 minutes at 750 W served with lingonberry jam significantly prolonged satiety, lowered hunger and desire to eat up to 8 h after consumption compared to the refined wheat bread breakfast.

[Food Nutr Res, July 28, 2008:[Epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1809. 46911 (4/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Schizophrenia - Celiac disease

Celiac disease screening. [Am J Med, March 1, 2004;116:312-317. 42425 (01/2005)] Summary Interview

Schizophrenia - Estradiol

Estradiol (valerate) 2mg P.O. x 2 weeks (males). ["Estrogen Effects in Psychiatric Disorders," Kulkarni J, 2005;5:107-122. Editors: Niels Bergemann, Anita Riecher-Rossler, Springer Wien New York. 43236 (7/2005)] Summary Interview

Schizophrenia - Estradiol transdermal patch

Estradiol transdermal patch 4mg of estradiol per patch, with a release rate of 50 mcg/24 hour, or 8 mg estradiol patches, with a release rate of 100 mcg of estradiol/24 hours. Patches were changed every 4 days (females). ["Estrogen Effects in Psychiatric Disorders," Kulkarni J, 2005;5:107-122. Editors: Niels Bergemann, Anita Riecher-Rossler, Springer Wien New York. 43236 (7/2005)] Summary Interview

Schizophrenia - Fatty acid deficiencies

Fatty acid deficiencies/insufficiencies of linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); increased omega-6:omega-3 ratio. [Lipids, 1996 (Suppl.);31:S163 - S165. 24850 (1997)] Summary Interview

Schizophrenia - Fish oil

Fish oil. [Lipids, 1996 (Suppl.);31:S163 - S165. 24850 (1997)] Summary Interview

Schizophrenia - Gluten-free diet

Gluten-free diet improves cerebral hypofusion. [Am J Med, March 1, 2004;116: 312-317. 42425 (01/2005)] Summary Interview

Schizophrenia - Glycine

Glycine 2 to 30 gm/d. [CNS Drugs, January, 1997;7(1):47-67. 26967 (1997)] Summary Interview

Schizophrenia - Omega-3 fatty acid

Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency. [Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty acids, 1996;55(1&2):45-54. 25867 (1997)] Summary Interview

Schizophrenia - Vitamins C and E

Antioxidant vitamins C and E. [Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty acids, 1996;55(1&2):45-54. 25867 (1997)] Summary Interview

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) - Hypericum extract (St. John’s Wort)

Hypericum extract (St. John’s Wort) 900 mg/d. [Pharmacopsychiat, 1997;30 (Suppl.):89-93. 28892 (1998)] Summary Interview

Seizures - hypocalcemia - 42506

Hypocalcemia secondary to calcium and vitamin D deficiencies corrected with oral calcium 1 gm daily in addition to oral calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) 0.25 ug/d. [Ann Pharmacotherapy, June 2004;38(6):1002-1005. 42506 (02/2005)] Summary Interview

Seizures - melatonin - 42688

Melatonin 2 3-mg tablets (children <9 years/weighing < 30 kg) or 2 3-mg (children >9 years/weighing > 30 kg) ad-on therapy with valproate. [Br J Clin Pharmacol, 2004;58(5):542-547. 42688 (03/2005)] Summary Interview

Seizures - omega-3 - 39385

Omega-3 5 gm/d (65% n-3 FA of marine fish oil in 2.5 EPA:DHA ratio) was provided daily as a semisolid bread spread of different flavors. [Epilepsia, 2002;43(1):103-104. 39385 (2002)] Summary Interview

Seizures - yoga meditation practice - 44343 / 45044

Yoga Meditation Practice (YMP) daily 3-6 months (pranayama methods used with major emphasis on silent meditation). [J Altern Complement Med.2006 May;12(4):367-71. 44343/45044 (8/2006)] Summary Interview

Seizures - docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapenaenioic acid (EPA), fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids - 51036

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the amount of 1200 mg of fish oil (omega-3 fatty acids 50% providing 240 mg docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and 360 mg eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)) given as oral drops separately or incorporated into food items once daily in children with medically resistant seizures reduced the frequency of seizures significantly. [N Am J Med Sci. 2015 Jul;7(7):317-21. 51036 (1/2015)] Interview PubMed

Seizures - vitamin b6 - 47346

Vitamin B6 antenatally (mother) 50 mg/d orally, then postnatally (neonates) orally 10 mg/kg/day given by drops or liquid, in a single dose, with a maximum dose of 250 mg/d with or away from meals. [Eur J Pediatr, 2009 July 9; [Epub ahead of print]. 47346 (2/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Selenium - Selenium deficiency/insufficiency

Selenium deficiency/insufficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, cardiovascular disease, hypothyroidism, sperm dysfunction, rheumatoid disorders and viral susceptibility. [Br Med J, February 8, 1997;314:387-388. 26998 (1997)] Summary Interview

Sepsis - ascorbic acid, vitamin C - 50917

Ascorbic Acid intravenously (AA) (50 mg/kg/day for 4 days) or high dose AA (200 mg/kg/day for 4 days) was given in 4 divided doses every 6 hours prepared in 50 ml aliquots of D5%W. Once the AA solution was prepared, the aliquots to be administered were kept at 4 degrees centigrade in the dark. The 50 ml aliquots had a light protected hood placed over the bag. When AA was to be infused, the hooded AA aliquot was taken from the ICU refrigerator and infused into the patient in light-protected tubing over 30 minutes. All these measures were taken to prevent AA from spontaneously oxidizing which it will do if these measures are not addressed. No nutrients were added to the AA solution. [J Transl Med. 2014;12:32. 50917 (8/2015)] Interview PubMed

Sepsis - carnitine - 49705

Carnitine (L) 12 grams given in an IV bolus and over 12 hours (normal saline) started within the first 18 hours after the diagnosis of sepsis showed mortality was significantly lower at 28 days in the L-carnitine group (4/16 vs 9/15), with a nonsignificant improved survival at 1 year. Carnitine therapy has very low side effects. [ JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 2013 July 12; [Epub ahead of print]. 49705 (8/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sepsis - diet - 44455

Diet - enteral nutrition (continuous tube-feeding) mean daily doses were: EPA 4.9 ± 0.14 g/d; GLA 4.60 ± 0.13 g/d; vitamin C 907 ± 27 mg/d; vitamin E 346 ± 10 IU/d. [Crit Care Med., 2006 Jul 17; [Epub ahead of print]. 44455 (9/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sepsis - fish oil - 44774

Fish oil 0.1 – 0.25 g/kg/d . (Commercially available fish oil-based lipid emulsions have about 4 g of n-3 fatty acids per 10 g of lipids supplied. For a patient of 70 kg and at an infused dose of 0.15 g/kg/d this would result in the provision of about 4 g of n-3 fatty acids per day). [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2006 Mar;9(2):140-8. 44774 (11/2006)] Interview PubMed

Sepsis - fish oil - 47796

Fish oil given parenterally in a 50:40:10 mixture of medium-chain fatty acids, soybean oil and fish oil reduced interleukin-6 in the blood, improved lung function and shortened hospital stay. [Critical Care, Jan 19, 2010;14:R5. 47796 (5/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sepsis - n-acetylcysteine - 46020

N-acetylcysteine 150 mg/kg and then 15 mg/kg/hr from a continuous I.V. infusion inhibited the adverse effects of E. coli endotoxin on renal function. [Crit Care Med, 2007; 35(8):1869-75. 46020 (7/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sepsis - selenium - 23738

Selenium deficiency is a risk factor and should be assessed for, if deficient replaced with 200-1000 mcg/d. [Biological Trace Element Research, 1995;50:149-155. 23738 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sexual Activity/Behavior - Vitamin C

Vitamin C 3000 mg/d sustained release increased sexual intercourse frequency. [Biol Psychiatry, 2002;52:371-374. 39982 (2002)] Summary Interview

Sexual Activity/Behavior - climacteric - dhea - 48915

DHEA 10 mg/d orally (female). [Climacteric, 2011 Dec;14(6):661-8. 48915 (1/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Shock (septic shock) - N-acetylcysteine

N-acetylcysteine 150 mg/kg. [Critical Care, April 2004; 8(2):R66-R71. 41842 (09/2004)] Summary Interview

Sickle Cell Anemai - dha, epa - 48751

EPA 15 mg/kg body wt /d and DHA 10 mg /kg body wt/d taken in 2 divided doses mixed in food if children, and in capsules if adults twice daily, reduced bilirubin level in the eye following daily intake of the omega-3 fatty acids and was associated with a reduction in the number of sickle cell crisis with no side effects.
[APMIS, 2011 July;119(7):442-8. 48751 (9/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sickle Cell Anemia - Glutamine

Glutamine 600 mg/kg/d in 2 doses, at breakfast and in the afternoon/supper. Patients mixed the glutamine in a beverage (e.g. orange juice, milk) or a semi-liquid food (e.g. pudding, oatmeal). [J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2004;26(10):619-625. 42297 (12/2004)] Summary Interview

Silicone Breast Implant Syndrome - Silicon implant

Silicon implant removal improved symptoms of chronic fatigue, muscle pain, joint pain, joint swelling and/or lymphadenopathy. [Sem Arthritis Rheum, August 1994;24(1)/Suppl. 1:22-28. 20882 (1995)] Summary Interview

Sleep disorder - anxiety, inflammation, melatonin, pain, surgery - 50788

Melatonin given perioperatively between 2-10 mg in a single or multiple doses throughout the day, up to possibly 300 mg/kg/bw, has analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and sleep normalizing effects, and an excellent safety profile, any of which may significantly improve quality of life in surgical patients. [Anaesthesia. 2014 Oct;69(10):1163-71. 50788 (5/2105)] Interview PubMed

Sleep Disorder - caffeine - 23013

Caffeine containing medications may be a cause (analgesics, cold preparations may contain 30 mg of caffeine or the equivalent of a weak cup of coffee). Coffee a lesser cause. Tea and decaffeinated coffee showed no effect. [J Am Geriatric Society, 1995;43:860-864. 23013 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sleep Disorder - cherry juice, melatonin - 50021

Cherry juice (tart) Montmorency cherry concentrate administered at 30 mls twice per day, morning and evening, diluted with about 200 mls (.84 of a cup) of water, consumed about 30 minutes before breakfast and the evening meal for 7 days increased total melatonin content (aMT6s - urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin) in the urine and significantly increased the time in bed, total sleep time and sleep efficiency. [ J Nutr. 2011 Oct 30. [Epub ahead of print]. 50021 (2/2012)] Interview PubMed

Sleep Disorder - diet - 45792

Diet - high glycemic index meal (high glycemic index rice) 4 hours before bed shortened sleep onset time. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):426-30. 45792 (7/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sleep Disorder - magnesium - 48503

Magnesium citrate providing 320 mg elemental magnesium daily. Five capsules daily each providing 64 mg of magnesium. Two capsules with the morning meal, one with at the noon meal, and two during the evening meal. [Magnes Res, 2010 Dec 1; 23(4): 158-68. 48503 (3/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sleep Disorder - melatonin - 22042

Melatonin 1-5 mg induces an hypnotic effect when administered at 12 noon, 5:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m., but less so when it was administered at 9:00 p.m.. [Eur J Pharmacol, 1995; 275:213-216. 22042 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sleep Disorder - melatonin - 42513

Melatonin 0.5 to 1 mg fast or controlled release on an empty stomach 20 to 30 minutes before bed time in children with circadian rhythm sleep problems and severe neuropsychiatric developmental disorders; cerebral palsy, epilepsy, autism, visual impairment, intellectual deficits and other neurological problems, usually present in combination (children with severe brain damage may require up to 6 to 10 mg and occasionally even up to 15 mg). [Developmental Medicine Child Neurology, 2004;46:776-782. 42513 (02/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Sleep Disorder - valerian - 50096

Valerian at 530 mg of a concentrated valerian extract (CVE) showed significant improvement in sleep quality in postmenopausal women without side effects. [Menopause, 2011 Sep;18(9):951-5. 50096 (5/2012)] Interview PubMed

Smoking - Smoking cessation

Smoking cessation for 12-15 months normalized the high level of nasal pathogens caused by smoking. [Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Feb;133(2):135-8. 45781 (7/2007)] Summary Interview

Smoking - Vitamin C

Vitamin C 130 mg/d in smokers from diet. [Circulation, April 15, 1996;93(8): 1488-1492. 24261 (1997)] Interview

Smoking - Vitamin C - 2

Vitamin C 2 gm/d x 10 days decreased monocyte adhesiveness to levels found in nonsmokers. [Circulation, April 15, 1996;93(8):1488-1492. 24261 (1997)] Interview

Smoking - Vitamin C - 3

Vitamin C 1 gm/d in smokers lowered blood lead. [J Am Coll Nutr 1999;18(2): 166-170. 32149 (1999)] Summary Interview

Smoking - Vitamin C - 4

Vitamin C 1 gm b.i.d. (with breakfast and dinner) prevented monocyte dysfunction in smokers; normal monocyte function stimulates collateral arteriogenesis. [Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol, 2007; 27(1): 120-6. 45084 (4/2007)] Summary Interview

Soy Foods - Soy food absorption

Soy food absorption - higher levels daidzein attained in women. Tempeh (mainly isoflavone aglycon) resulted in higher serum peak levels of both daidzein and genistein and the associated area under the curve compared to textured vegetable protein (predominantly isoflavone glucosides). Soy milk was absorbed faster and peak levels of isoflavones were attained earlier than with the other soy foods. [J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1):45-51. 44376 (2/2006)] Summary Interview

Stress - b vitamins - 48855

High dose B-complex vitamin supplementation (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 (25 mg), B9 and B12) taken in two tablets after breakfast daily in a complex of small doses of vitamins C and E, passion flower and inositol. [Hum Psychopharmacol, 2011 Sept 8; [Epub ahead of print]. 48855 (10/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Stress - black cohosh - cimicifuga racemosa - 49274

Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) [black cohosh] 200 mg/d significantly attenuated the elevated subjective perception of stress and increased salivary chromogranin-A levels; and rapidly recovered the decrease in alpha waveband induced by performing mental arithmetic task. [Biomed Res, 2012; 33(3):145-52. 49274 (9/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Stress - Caffeine

Caffeine may aggravate the combat-stress response. [Military Medicine, 1996; 161:230-232. 25102 (1997)] Summary Interview

Stress - green tea - 50050

Green tea consumption in ascending order of intake 1 to 5 or more cups per day is associated with a reduction in functional disability (cognitive function, depression, psychological distress, stroke) and healthy life expectancy, in a dose dependent fashion. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 March;95(3):732–739. 50050 (5/2012)] Interview PubMed

Stress - Meditation

Meditation - memorization of a favorite spiritual or religious passage and then the slow recitation of that passage for 20 to 30 minutes. Teachers were given guided practice in three corollary techniques. These were to: 1) Deliberately slow down as often as possible. 2) Do one thing at a time. 3) Take a short part of the passage one uses for meditation and repeat it to oneself during the day as a mantra (teachers). [Stress Medicine 1999;15:69-77. 32163 (1999)] Summary Interview

Stress - omega-3 fatty acids, phosphatidyl serine - 49193

Omega-3 PS capsules consisting of phosphatidyl serine (PS) (20-22%), DHA (minimum 25%),and EPA (minimum 5%) [3 capsules = a minimum of 15 mg EPA, 75 mg DHA and 60-66 mg PS] once daily in the morning with breakfast. [Nutr Res, 2012 Apr;32(4):241-50. 49193 (7/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Stress - vitamin-mineral supplements - 49627

Vitamin and mineral supplementation had positive benefits on perception of stress, mild psychiatric symptoms and general mood in non-clinical, healthy adult populations in a meta-analysis of 8 double-blind randomized controlled trials. [Psychosom Med, 2013 Feb;75(2):144-53. 49627 (8/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Stroke - 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D

1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D low predictive. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Jun;15(3):188-97. 43761 (10/2005)] Summary Interview

Stroke - amino acids, branched-chain - 48363

Amino acid mixture (Aminotrofic®) composed of 50% branched-chain amino acids given in two daily doses via a nasogastric tube in the ICU. [ Neurocrit Care, 2010, Oct 23; [Epub ahead of print]. 48363 (1/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Stroke - Antioxidants

Antioxidants - vitamin E 800 IU (727 mg) and vitamin C 500 mg within 12 hours post-infarct after acute stroke enhanced antioxidant capacity, mitigated oxidative damage and reduced tissue inflammation. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2005 Dec;59(12):1367-73. 43890/44353 (2/2006)] Summary Interview

Stroke - Aspirin

Aspirin 325 mg/d and vitamin E 400 I.U./d reduced risk of ischemic stroke 25% more than ASA alone. [Am J Clin Nutr, 1995;62(suppl):1381S-1384S. 23791 (1996)] Summary Interview

Stroke - b vitamin- 49769

B vitamin supplementation reduced stroke events from reducing homocysteine levels. Folic acid 0.8 mg, vitamin B12 400 mcg and B6 40 mg was a common dose. [Neurology, 2013 Sept 18; [Epub ahead of print]. 49769 (12/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Stroke - Caffeine

Caffeine intake daily may increase deaths from stroke 17 to 24 percent. [The Lancet, 1997;349:279-281. 27049 (1997)] Summary Interview

Stroke - coffee - 47016

Coffee does not increase stroke risk; intakes of 2 or more cups per day versus less than 1 cup per month may reduce risk. [Circulation, 2009 Feb 16; [Epub ahead of print]. 47016 (5/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Stroke - Diet

Diet rich in potassium, magnesium and fiber is protective against stroke mortality in men. [Br J Nutr, 2000;84:5-17. 35798 (2000)] Summary

Stroke - Diet - 2

Diet rich in fruits and vegetables (at least 5 serving per day), legumes, fish, grains and cereals. [Br J Nutr, 2000;84:5-17. 35798 (2000)] Summary

Stroke - Exercise

Exercise (regular) reduces risk. [Br J Nutr, 2000;84:5-17. 35798 (2000)] Summary

Stroke - Fish

Fish consumption in women two to four times per week had a 48% decrease in risk of thrombotic stroke; fish 5+ times/week had a 70% decreased risk of thrombotic stroke. Women who ate fish two to four times per week had a 27% decrease in total and a 37% decrease in ischemic stroke, while those who ate fish 5+ times per week had a 52% decrease in total stroke and a 62% decrease in ischemic stroke. Omega-3 fatty acid intake, 87% of which was from seafood/fish sources, women in the highest quintile had a significant 28% decrease in total stroke, with nonsignificant reductions in risk of ischemic stroke (29%), and thrombotic stroke (33%). No increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke was observed. [JAMA, 2001;285: 304-312. 33726 (2001)] Interview

Stroke - Fish - 2

Fish two to four times per week reduced the risk of thrombotic stroke 48%; fish 5+ times/week reduced risk 70% . [JAMA, 2001;285:304-312. 33726 (2001)] Interview

Stroke - Fish - 3

Fish two to four times per week reduce risk of total stroke 27% and ischemic stroke 37% in women; fish 5+ times per week reduced risk of total stroke 52% and reduce the risk of ischemic stroke 62% in women. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2005 Dec;59(12):1367-73. 43890/44353 (2/2006)] Summary Interview

Stroke - Fruit and vegetable

Fruit and vegetable consumption lower risk. [Br J Nutr, 2000;84:5-17. 35798 (2000)] Summary

Stroke - green tea - 50050

Green tea consumption in ascending order of intake 1 to 5 or more cups per day is associated with a reduction in functional disability (cognitive function, depression, psychological distress, stroke) and healthy life expectancy, in a dose dependent fashion. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 March;95(3):732-739. 50050 (5/2012)] Interview PubMed

Stroke - Homocysteine

Homocysteine is a risk factor. [Br J Nutr, 2000;84:5-17. 35798 (2000)] Summary

Stroke - Homocysteinemia/homocystinuria

Homocysteinemia/homocystinuria is a risk factor. [NEJM, February 2, 1995;332 (5):328-329. 21740 (1996)] Summary Interview

Stroke - Iron

Iron low in serum is predictive. [Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Jun;15(3): 188-97. 43761 (10/2005)] Summary Interview

Stroke - Isoflavone

Isoflavone 80 mg/day in a single dose with or without food. [Eur Heart J, 2008 Sept 23; [Epub ahead of print]. 46714 (12/2008) Summary

Stroke - mediterranean diet - 48965

Diet - Mediterranean-style diet, defined as a diet with a high intake of fruits, vegetables, monounsaturated fat, fish, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, moderate alcohol consumption, and a low intake of red meat, saturated fat, and refined grains, was associated with a decreased risk of having a vascular event. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2011 Dec;94(6):1458-64 48965 (01/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Stroke - soft drinks - 50161

Calorie containing soft drinks including caloric sweeteners such as sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), cola-type beverages, flavored juices and non-100% fruit increased stroke, especially ischemic stroke, by 20% and 80% respectively in Japanese women (highest intake group compared to the lowest) between 40 and 59 years of age but not in men. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2012 Dec;96(6):1390-7. 50161 (12/2012)] Interview PubMed

Stroke - Tocotrienols

Tocotrienols 200 mg b.i.d. with meals may be protective. [Mol Aspects Med. 2007 Oct-Dec;28(5-6):692-728. Epub 2007 Mar 27. 46221 (6/2008)] Summary Interview

Stroke - vegetarian diet - 49219

Vegetarians have lower : all cause mortality; ischemic heart disease (IHD) ; mortality from circulatory diseases; mortality from cerebrovascular disease; significantly lower cancer incidence than nonvegetarians. Vegetarians have reduced cardiovascular risk factors compared with omnivores including: decreased body mass index; waist to hip ratio; blood pressure; plasma total cholesterol (TC); triglycerides; LDL-C levels; serum lipoprotein(a); plasma factor VII activity; the ratio of TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TAG/HDL-C, and serum ferritin levels. [Ann Nutr Metab, 2012 Jun 1;60(4):233-240. 49219 (7/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Substance Abuse - Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids - Five capsules each containing 450 mg of EPA, 100 mg of DHA and 50 mg of other omega-3 LC PUFAs were taken in divided doses with or without meals reduced feelings of anger. [Psychiatry Res, 2008 Jan 15;157(1-3):95-104. 45708 (2/2008)] Summary Interview

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome - Iron fortification

Iron fortification in infant formulas use with caution. Iron enables toxigenic bacteria to seed in the infant gut. Infants who die of SIDS usually have a history of receiving iron supplements or iron enriched formulas; their livers have 3 times the amount of iron as do infants who die of non-infectious causes. Breast feeding is best. [J Trace Elements Exp Med, 1994;7:47-51. 22201 (1996)] Summary Interview

Suicide - Arachidonic acid

Arachidonic acid (omega-6):DHA ratio higher - increases risk. [Am J Psychiatry, 2006 Jun;163(6):1100-2. 44473/45043 (7/2006)] Summary Interview

Suicide - Cholesterol levels

Cholesterol levels naturally low (<5 mmol/l), not pharmacologically reduced, were associated with depression and suicide. [Br J Psychiatry 1999;175: 259-262. 33674 (2000)] Summary Interview

Suicide - Cholesterol/Triglyceride

Total serum cholesterol level and low density lipoprotein levels were decreased significantly in a parasuicidal population; triglyceride concentrations were decreased in suicide attempters with major depression. [Acta Psychiatry Scand, 2003;108:215-221. 40826 (2003)] Summary Interview

Suicide - Docosahexaenoic acid

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels low increased risk. [Am J Psychiatry, 2006 Jun;163(6):1100-2. 44473/45043 (7/2006)] Summary Interview

Sunburn - Vitamin C

Vitamin C 2 gm/d plus d-alpha-tocopherol 1000 IU/d P.O. reduced sunburn development. [J Am Acad Dermatol, January 1998;45-48. 29565 (1998)] Summary Interview

Surgery - Alpha-ketoglutarate

Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) 7.2 g and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) 720 mg per day (SANOPAL), given in three single doses a day just before breakfast, lunch and dinner (lung cancer). [Eur J Cardiothorac Surg, 2007 Nov;32(5):776-82. Epub 2007 Sep 4. 46255 (07/2008)] Summary Interview

Surgery - anxiety, inflammation, melatonin, pain, sleep - 50788

Melatonin given perioperatively between 2-10 mg in a single or multiple doses throughout the day, up to possibly 300 mg/kg/bw, has analgesic, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory and sleep normalizing effects, and an excellent safety profile, any of which may significantly improve quality of life in surgical patients. [Anaesthesia. 2014 Oct;69(10):1163-71. 50788 (5/2105)] Interview PubMed

Surgery - Glutamine

Glutamine 20-30 gm/d P.O. or I.V. for catabolic state. [J Nutr, 2001:2569S-2577S. 38827 (2003)] Summary Interview

Surgery - Glutamine - 2

Glutamine, a non-essential amino acid, under stress helps maintain gut barrier function, which prevents bacterial translocation and possible multi-organ system failure. [Nutrition, Sept/Oct 1994;10(5): 385-391. 21498 (1995)] Summary Interview

Surgery - magnesium - 50118

Magnesium sulphate (50 mg/kg in 100 ml saline over 10 min followed by a continuous infusion of 20 mg/kg/h) decreased blood loss; provided a better surgical condition; prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time; increased heart rate and lowered mean arterial pressure in microscopic disc surgery. [Anaesthesia, 2011 Dec;66(12):1140-5. 50118 (9/2012)] Interview PubMed

Surgery - N-acetylcysteine

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) I.V. at 50 mg/kg bolus 1 hour pre-operatively (CABG and/or valve surgery) and then at 50 mg/kg/d for the next 48 hours reduced atrial fibrillation. [Eur Heart J, 2008; 29(5): 625-31. 46319 (08/2008)] Summary Interview

Surgery - Omega-3 fatty acid therapy

Omega-3 fatty acid therapy is beneficial in reducing the incidence and severity of multiple organ failure; improving recovery from trauma; reducing the incidence of infectious complications; decreasing the cachectic effect of pancreatic malignancy; decreasing inflammatory conditions; decreasing the clinical severity scores of inflammatory bowel conditions such as ulcerative colitis; reducing the incidence of rejection in kidney transplant patients and prolongation of allograft survival. [Nutrition, 1998;14(7/8): 627-633. 30632 (1999)] Summary Interview

Surgery - Selenium

Selenium should be assessed and low serum levels should be replaced with 200-1000 mcg of selenium which can reduce complications and oxidative stress. [Biological Trace Element Research, 1995;50:149-155. 23738 (1995)] Summary Interview

Syndrome X - Alcohol

Alcohol - one to three drinks per day may enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce biochemical factors associated with Syndrome X. [Nutr Rev, May 2000;154-160. 35814 (2001)] Summary Interview

Syndrome X - Chromium

Chromium 200 mcg/d may help. [Nutr Rev, May 2000;154-160. 35814 (2001)] Summary Interview
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