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Expert Pearls
Letter "T"
Categories beginning with "T"

Testosterone Replacement Therapy






Trans Fatty acids

Transplantation (renal)


Triglycerides (lowering)

Tuberculosis (Mycobacteria)


Entries beginning with "T"

Testosterone Replacement Therapy - Testosterone

Testosterone does not cause prostate cancer. [Eur Urol, 2006 Nov;50(5):935-9. Epub 2006 Jul 27. 45529 (3/2007)] Summary Interview

Thalassemia - L-carnitine

L-carnitine at 50 mg/kg/d orally in three divided doses ½ before meals. [Ann Hematol, 2007 Jan;86(1):31-4. Epub 2006 Oct 10. 44625, 44787/45753 (5/2007)] Summary Interview

Thalassemia - zinc- 49722

Zinc sulfate providing 25 mg of elemental zinc taken in a single dose with or without meals by Thalassemia patients showed increases in total body bone mass. The zinc supplement was well-tolerated.

[Am J Clin Nutr, 2013 Aug 14; [Epub ahead of print]. 49722 (9/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Thromboembolism - Alpha-linolenic acid

Alpha-linolenic acid rich diets - moderate ALA diet (canola and canola oil-based margarine) or a high ALA diet (linseed oil and linseed-oil based margarine) increased EPA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and total omega-3 PUFA levels and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio was significantly increased, while the arachidonic acid (AA)/EPA ratio decreased. [Am J Clin Nutr, 1999;69:872-882. 32119 (1999)] Summary Interview

Thromboembolism - Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 concentrations between 336.2 and 512 pmol/L was 2.82 and between 230.9 and 336.1 pmol/L was 4.72. [J Intern Med. 2005 Sep;258(3):244-9. 43644/44004 (1/2006)] Summary Interview

Thyroiditis - Pernicious anemia

Pernicious anemia is common in autoimmune thyroid disease. [Am J Med Sci; 2006; 332(3):119-22. 45530 (12/2007)] Summary Interview

Thyroiditis - Selenium

Selenium (selenomethionine) 200 mcg/d. [J Endocrinol, 2006 Jul;190(1):151-6. 45193 (1/2007] Summary Interview

Thyroiditis - Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in autoimmune thyroid disease. [Am J Med Sci; 2006; 332(3):119-22. 45530 (12/2007)] Summary Interview

Tinnitus - Ginkgo biloba extract

Ginkgo biloba extract 120-200 mg/d possible benefit. [Clin Otolaryngol 1999; 24:164-167. 32969 (1999)] Summary Interview

Toxicity - chemicals, green tea - 49596

Green Tea - 1 cup (3 g/300 ml water) of freshly prepared green tea once daily consumed by chemical laboratory workers showed a significant reduction in saliva GPx activity and an increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) indicating a reduction in oxidative stress. Green tea is a rational dietary supplement to reduce risk to chemical exposure in chemical laboratory workers. [Toxicol Ind Health, 2013 April 10; [Epub ahead of print]. 49596 (5/2103)] Summary Interview PubMed

Trans Fatty acids - Trans fat

Trans fat reduction by reducing commercially deep-fried food; use a margarine that is trans fatty acid free; avoid partially hydrogenated vegetable oils or "vegetable shortening" as ingredients; avoid confectionary foods if fatty acids not mentioned. [Am J Clin Nutr, 1997;66(Suppl.):1006S-1010S. 28289 (1998)] Summary Interview

Transplantation (renal) - Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 30 mg t.i.d.. [Intern Urol Nephrol, 2004;36:253-258. 42607 (02/2005)] Summary Interview

Trauma - Ascorbic acid

Ascorbic acid at 1,000 mg PO/PT q 8 hours; α-tocopherol 1,000 IU PO/PT q 8 hours; selenium 200 mcg IV q.d.. in trauma patients upon admission for 7 days. [Parenter Enteral Nutr, 2008;32(4): 384-8. 46434 (8/2008)] Summary Interview

Trauma - Glutamine

Glutamine 20-30 gm/d P.O. or I.V. for catabolic state. [J Nutr, 2001:2569S-2577S. 38827 (2003)] Summary Interview

Trauma - Synbiotic 2000

Synbiotic 2000 (a mixture of selected strains and oligosaccharides as prebiotic ingredients; Pediacoccus pentoseceus 5-33:3, Lactococcus raffinolactis 32-77:1, Lactobacillus paracasei subsp paracasei 19, Lactobacillus plantarum 2362 and the fibers: beta glucan, inulin, pectin) 1 sachet dissolved in 100 ml of lukewarm water and is given through a gastric tube every morning before feeding started. [JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 2007;31(2):119-26. 45241 (7/2007)] Summary Interview

Triglycerides (lowering) - amla - 46846

Amla (Emblica Officinalis Extract, Amlamax) at 500-1000 mg/d at bedtime with food. [Indian J Clin Biochem, 2008; 23(4): 378-381. 46846 (2/2009)] Summary Interview

Triglycerides (lowering) - carob fiber - polyphenols - 47793

Four grams of carob fiber containing 84% insoluble polyphenols (Exxenterol®; www.pulevabiotech.es) given twice with meals. [Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 2010 Jan 22; [Epub ahead of print]. 47793 (4/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Triglycerides (lowering) - combination therapy - 46916

Combination Therapy - Niaspan® 500-1500 mg/d at dinner-time; EPA + DHA mean dose of 1440 mg/d in a divided dose with breakfast and dinner; vitamin D 3590 IU/d (25-hydroxy vitamin D of 50-60 nag/ml) in gel cap form; and the American Heart Association Step II diet with 30% of calories from fat, ≤7% from saturated fat either stopped or reversed calcium scores. The goal was to get LDL < 60, HDL > 60 and triglycerides < 60 with the above approach. There was marked improvement in this program with the addition of vitamin D. [Am J Ther, 2008 Dec 15; [Epub ahead of print]. 46916 (3/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Triglycerides (lowering) - curcumin - 49352

Curcumin in a 150 mg capsule 30 minutes after breakfast and another 30 minutes after supper significantly decreased fasting blood glucose, the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), serum total FFAs and triglycerides while increasing LPL activity. No side effects were noted. [Nutr Food Res, 2012 Aug 29; [Epub ahead of print]. 49352 (10/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Triglycerides (lowering) - curcumin - 49354

Curcuminoids 1 gram per day (along with absorption enhancer piperine) significantly reduced serum triglycerides but there was no change in other lipids. [Phytother Res, 2012 May 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 49354 (11/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Triglycerides (lowering) - docosahexaenoic acid (dha), algae schyzochitrium - 48467

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from the algae Schyzochitrium at 250 mg or 500 mg per day. [Arch Dis Child, 2011, Jan 12; [Epub ahead of print]. 48467 (3/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Triglycerides (lowering) - docosahexaenoic acid - 45177

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in 8 gms of tuna oil (2.16 gms DHA) lowered triglycerides 27% in statin users. [Lipids, 2007; 42(2): 109-15. 45177 (6/2007)] Summary Interview

Triglycerides (lowering) - eicosapentaenoic acid - 35828

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 2.4 gm + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) 1.6 gm per day. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2000;72:389-394. 35828 (2000)] Summary Interview

Triglycerides (lowering) - fish oil - 33191

Fish oil 4 to 10 gm/day. [Lipids 1999;(3E supplement):S271-272. 33191 (2000)] Summary Interview

Triglycerides (lowering) - flaxseed - 44228

Flaxseed (ground) 2 tablespoons per day [Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi, 2005; 109(3):502-506. 44228 (9/2006)] Summary Interview

Triglycerides (lowering) - garlic - 45121

Garlic - one enteric-coated garlic powder tablet (equal to 400 mg garlic, 1 mg allicin) twice daily with meals. [Lipids Health Dis, 2007 Mar 1; [Epub ahead of print]. 45121 (5/2007)] Summary

Triglycerides (lowering) - niacin - 43553

Niacin: Day 1 0.25 gm after lunch, 0.5 gm after dinner and 0.5 gm at night. Day 2 0.25 gm after breakfast, 0.5 gm after lunch, 0.5 gm after dinner and 1gm at night. Day 3 0.25 gm after breakfast, 0.5 gm after lunch, 1gm after dinner and 1gm at night. Day 4 1 gm q.i.d., taken immediately after meals and at bedtime. Niacin therapy: Fibrinogen is lowered by 15%; raises HDL-C by 20-40%; HDL2-C, the large HDL particle is raised by up to 100%; a negligible effect on smaller HDL3; LDL-C is lowered by 15-30%; small, dense LDL particles are significantly lowered; triglycerides are lowered by 15-40%; and Lp(a) decreases10-40%. [J Intern Med. 2005 Aug;258(2):94-114. 43553 (01/2005)] Summary Interview

Triglycerides (lowering) - omega-3 fatty acids - 24131

Omega-3 fatty acids 4 gm/d (EPA/DHA) reduced by 0.28 mmol/L more than the controls. [Annals of Internal Medicine, December,1995;123(12):911-918. 24131 (1996)] Summary Interview

Triglycerides (lowering) - omega-3 fatty acids - 47890

Two grams per day of purified EPA and DHA (not less than 85%) in a 1:1 ratio given as 1 gram with the two main meals. [Clin Exp Hypertens, 2010; 32(2): 137-44. 47890 (5/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Triglycerides (lowering) - omega-3 faty acids - 47890

Omega-3 fatty acids in 1000 mg capsules with at least 85% EPA/DHA (approximately 400 mg from EPA and 450 mg from DHA) per capsule twice daily with meals. [Clin Exp Hypertens, 2010;32(2):137-44. 47890 (7/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Triglycerides (lowering) - protein - 46326

Protein (30% soy protein, 35% textured soy protein and 35% animal protein) .8 mg/kg/d. [Diabetes Care, 2008; 31(4): 648-54. 46326 (8/2008)] Summary Interview

Triglycerides (lowering) - red yeast rice - 47484

Red yeast rice in 300 mg capsules, 2 capsules two times daily away from meals. [Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2009;18(3):310-7. 47484 (12/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Triglycerides (lowering) - sea buckthorn - 49723

Sea Buckthorn dried berries at 20 grams/d, which is equal to about 100 g of fresh berries; sea buckthorn oil at 4 grams/d, taken as 8 capsules; sea buckthorn phenolic ethanol extract at 14.6 grams/d (7.3 g sea buckthorn extract + 7.3 g maltodextrin); and 100 grams/d of frozen bilberries all had no effect on blood sugar but the Sea Buckthorn oil lowered total cholesterol and LDL; Sea Buckthorn berries lowered triglycerides; bilberries lowered lipids in the high-risk group but increased triglycerides in the lower risk group; and sea buckthorn phenolic ethanol extract increased triglycerides. No side effects were noted.

[Am J Clin Nutr, 2013 Aug 14; [Epub ahead of print]. 49723 (9/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Triglycerides (lowering) - soy protein - 42786

Soy protein containing 80 mg/d isoflavones (foods containing approximately 40 mg of isoflavones include 2 cups of soy milk, 120 g of uncooked tofu, 20g of soy flour or soy protein isolate, 75 g of uncooked tempeh, half cup of uncooked green soybeans, or 20 g of roasted or mature soybeans). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2005;81;397-408. 42786 (04/2005)] Summary Interview

Triglycerides (lowering) - strawberries - 49831

Strawberries equaling 500 mg, or approximately 2 cups, were consumed daily for 15 days and significantly reduced total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels (-8.78%, -13.72% and -20.80%, respectively) while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol remained unchanged. Strawberry supplementation also significantly decreased serum malondialdehyde, urinary 8-OHdG and isoprostanes levels (-31.40%, -29.67%, -27.90%, respectively). A significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity was observed after strawberry consumption. Spontaneous and oxidative hemolysis were also significantly reduced (-31.7% and -39.03%, respectively). Strawberry intake also significantly decreased the number of activated platelets. Strawberries consumption improved plasma lipid profiles, biomarkers of antioxidant status, antihemolytic defenses and platelet function in these healthy subjects. [J Nutr Biochem, 2013 Nov 27; [Epub ahead of print]. 49831 (4/2014)] Summary Interview PubMed

Triglycerides (lowering) - vitamin C - 46339

Vitamin C 500 mg/d or more. [Journal of Chiropractic Medicine, 2008; 7(2): 48-58. 46339 (061108)] ltt Summary

Tuberculosis (Mycobacteria) - Vitamin D2

Vitamin D2 2.5 mg or 100,000IU in a single dose inhibited the growth of TB-like bacteria in TB contacts significantly more than the blood of those who had received placebo. [Am J Respir Critical Care Med, 2007;176(2): 208-13. 45746 (3/20008)] Summary Interview
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