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Expert Pearls
Letter "V"
Categories beginning with "V"

Vaginitis

Vegan / Vegetarian Diet

Ventricular Function

Very Low Birth Weight Infants

Veterinary Medicine

Violence

Vision

Vitamin A

Vitamin C

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

Vitamins

Vitiligo

Vitmains B1, B6, B12


Entries beginning with "V"

Vaginiitis - lactobacillus - 48197

L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 at 2 x109 viable bacteria orally in the morning and at night (4 x 109 total daily) taken as a capsule containing freeze dried bacteria. [Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 2010 Aug 27; [Epub ahead of print] 48197] Summary Interview PubMed

Vaginitis (atrophic, see atrophic vaginitis) - dhea - 29205

DHEA cream (10 gms of DHEA; 16 gms of emulsifying wax; DHEA cream 10 gms of light mineral oil; 1 gm of benzyl alcohol; 33.4 gms of purified water; and 29.6 gms of ethanol 95% per 100 gms of cream). [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1997;82:3498-3505. 29205 (1998)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vaginitis (bacterial) - lactobacillus - 26161

Lactobacillus enriched yogurt. [Arch Family Med, Nov/Dec 1996;5:593-596. 26161 (1997)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vaginitis (candidiasis) - beta-carotene - 21510

Beta-carotene was lower in the exfoliated vaginal cells. [Am J Repro Immunol, 1994;32:221-225. 21510 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vegan/Vegetarian Diet - Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathy reduced in 4-17 days. [J Nutr Med, 1994;4:431-439. 21878] Summary Interview

Vegan/Vegetarian Diet - Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 needs to be supplemented in vegan diet. [J Nutr Med, 1994;4:431-439. 21878] Summary Interview

Ventricular Function - Ejection fraction

Ejection fraction improved - amino acid mixture 12 gm/d (L-leucine 3.8, L- lysine 2, L-isoleucine 1.9, L-valine 1.9, L-threonine 1.1, L-cystine 0.4, L-histidine 0.4, L-phenylalanine 0.3, L-methionine 0.2, L-tyrosine 0.1, and L-tryptophan 0.1.). [Gerontology, 2005 Sep-Oct;51(5):302-8. 42895/43681 (11/2005)] Summary Interview

Very Low Birth Weight Infants - docosahexaenoic acid (dha) - 48450

DHA ranging from about 30 mg/kg/d (total intravenous lipid intake was 0.5g/kg/d) to about 200 mg/kg/d (total intravenous lipid intake was 3.5g/kg/d) given continuously as a 24 hour intravenous infusion (Omegaven contains DHA and EPA in a proportion of about 2:1) administered from the first day of life in VLBW infants reduced the need for laser therapy to treat retinopathy. [Pediatrics, 2011;127:223-228 48450 (05/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Very Low Birth Weight Infants - Glutamine

Glutamine 0.3 gm/kg/d (maximum dose) reduce hospital costs by 30%. [J Parenteral Enteral Nutr, 1998;22:352-356. 31097 (1999)] Summary Interview

Very Low Birth Weight Infants - Glutamine - 2

Glutamine 0.3 gm/kg/d (maximum dose) reduce hospital costs by 30%. [J Pediatrics, 1997;131:691-699. 29199 ] Summary

Veterinary Medicine - Fatty acid

Fatty acid replacement - omega-6s for dermatologic conditions; omega-3 and 6s for allergic conditions; and omega-3s for musculoskeletal conditions. [Veterinary Medicine, December 1995;1149-1155. 23911;Veterinary Medicine, December 1995;1156-1159. 23912;Veterinary Medicine, December 1995;1138-1148. 23913 (1996)] Summary Interview

Violence - Cholesterol

Cholesterol (low < 250 mg/dl) was shown to be linked to subsequent arrests for violent crimes. [J Psychiatric Res, 2000;34:301-309. 36580 (2001)] Summary Interview

Violence - Type A individuals

Type A individuals - elevated serum copper/zinc ratios and elevated lead, cadmium and magnesium along with depressed sodium, potassium and manganese. Type A's generally have a history of episodic violence followed by genuine remorse. Type B’s have a high incidence of learning disabilities, allergies and acne. [Physiology and Behavior, 1997;62(2):327-329. 27960 (1997)] Summary Interview

Violence - Type B individuals

Type B individuals have depressed serum copper/zinc ratios, elevated sodium, potassium, lead, cadmium, magnesium and abnormal (high or low) levels of manganese. This pattern is commonly found in sociopaths and career criminals who have a history of violent acts with absence of remorse. Copper and zinc were found to be quite significant in this typing. [Physiology and Behavior, 1997;62(2):327-329. 27960 (1997)] Summary Interview

Vision - cocoa flavanols - 48676

Cocoa flavanols (CF)773 mg from specially prepared dark chocolate in a onetime dose away from meals and after breakfast, with avoidances of caffeine,alcohol,and high flavonoid foods for 24 hours. [Physiol Behav, 2011 June 1; 103(3-4): 255-60. 48676 (6/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitamin A - Hepatoxicity/ Cirrhosis

Hepatoxicity: cirrhosis -vitamin A intake about 400 x 106 IU/d; non-cirrhotic portal hypertension - 150 x 106 IU/d; 20 x 106 IU/d the lowest dose observed to induced liver damage. [Am J Med, April 1995;98(4) 424. 22235 (1995)] Summary Interview

Vitamin B1 - Red cell transketolase

Red cell transketolase is best assessment test. [J Am Coll Nutr, 1988;7(1):61-67. 29204 (1998)] Summary Interview

Vitamin B12 - Aging

Aging - maybe 5 to 10% of elderly individuals may be deficient with neurologic damage, without megaloblastic anemia or a high MCV. [Am J Clin Nutr, 1994;60:2-11. 20547 (1996)] Summary Interview

Vitamin B12 - Methylmalonic acid

Methylmalonic acid elevated in the absence of anemia and macrocytosis may indicate a vitamin B12 deficiency. [Am J Clin Nutr, 1994;60:2-11. 20547 (1996)] Summary Interview

Vitamin B12 - Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 647 mcg/d or more P.O. normalized biochemical markers of B12 insufficiency (methylmalonic acid) [Arch Intern Med, 2005 May 23;165(10)1167-72. 43594/43599 (3/2006)] Summary Interview

Vitamin B12 - Vitamin B12 - 2

Vitamin B12 deficiency is common in autoimmune thyroid disease. [Am J Med Sci; 2006; 332(3):119-22. 45530 (12/2007)] Summary Interview

Vitamin B12 - Vitamin B12 - 3

Vitamin B12 needs to be supplemented in vegan diet. [J Nutr Med, 1994;4:431-439. 21878] Summary Interview

Vitamin B12 - Vitamin B12 - 4

Vitamin B12 normal ranges should be 600 to 2000 pg/ml. Below 550 to 600 pg/ml deficiencies start to appear in the CSF. Humans are born with serum levels of about 2000 pg/ml, which decline gradually throughout life. [Medical Hypotheses, 1991;34:131-140. 28725 (1998)] Summary Interview

Vitamin B6 - Pyridoxal phosphate

Pyridoxal phosphate and pyridoxal are the best assessments tests. [Biochemical and Metabolic Biology, 1994; 52:10-17. 20478 (1996)] Summary Interview

Vitamin C - Neurologic disorders

Neurologic disorders - beneficial by protecting neurons against the neurotoxic effects of glutamate; is an inhibitor at the dopamine receptor; is a powerful antioxidant and is the main defense of the brain against toxic free radicals (FORs); works in tandem with vitamin E. Vitamin E is found mostly in the glia and ascorbate in the neurons. These antioxidants also act on the gene expression of other antioxidant systems. [J Royal Soc Med, May, 1996;89(5):241. 24982/24872 (1997)] Summary Interview

Vitamin D - Aging

Aging - deficiency is common in the elderly. Risk factors include lack of sunlight, medications, malabsorption and surgery. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with bone loss, increased risk of fractures, muscle weakness, pain and impairment of immunologic function. Vitamin D 30 minutes of sunlight 2 to 3 times a week; vitamin D2 100,000 IU every 3 months or vitamin D3 800-1600 I.U./d. [J Am Geriatric Soc, 1995;43: 822-828. 22863 (1996)] [J Am Geriatric Soc, 1995;43: 822-828. 22863 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitamin D - Chronic disease

Chronic disease - benefits to blood pressure, bone, cancer prevention, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis and other chronic conditions. [Am J Clin Nutr, 1999;69:842-856. 32120 (1999)] [Am J Clin Nutr, 1999;69:842-856. 32120 (1999)] Summary Interview

Vitamin D - Hypovitaminosis D (1)

Hypovitaminosis D is inversely related and more prevalent in diabetes mellitus and carotid atherosclerosis. [Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Nov;65(5): 593-597. 45399 (1/2007)] [Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Nov;65(5): 593-597. 45399 (1/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitamin D - Hypovitaminosis D (2)

Hypovitaminosis D is inversely related to heart failure and sudden cardiac dealth in coronary artery disease patients. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008 August 5; [Epub ahead of print]. 46572 (9/2008)] [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008 August 5; [Epub ahead of print]. 46572 (9/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitamin D - Hypovitaminosis D (3)

Hypovitaminosis D was found in more than half of the patients on a general medical ward. [NEJM, March 19, 1998;338(12):777-783. 29471 (1998)] [NEJM, March 19, 1998;338(12):777-783. 29471 (1998)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitamin D - Levels

Levels of 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 below 31 ng/ml are insufficient and below 10 ng/ml are deficient. [J Bone Mineral Res, 2005;20(8):1327-1333. 43486 (8/2005)] Summary Interview

Vitamin D - Supplementation

Supplementation - Everyone should supplement with vitamin D3: 500-600 IU/d for infants, 1000 IU/day for children and 2000 IU/d for adolescents and adults. Vitamin D2 is less effective than vitamin D3 for cancer prevention. Everyone who takes vitamin D supplements should drink 6-8 glasses of fluids per day, and should take care to avoid dehydration and possible risk to kidney stones. [J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol, 2007;103(3-5):708-711. 45265 (2/2008)] Summary Interview

Vitamin D - Supplementation - 2000 IU

Supplementation - 2000 IU of vitamin D3 orally for everyone aged 5 and older, plus 10-15 minutes daily in the sun between 10A.M. and 2 P.M., if skin type permits (easily tan, rarely burn) in the summer season. Sun exposure beyond 15 minutes isn’t usually helpful for vitamin D synthesis, unless heavily pigmented skin. Surface area is important so shorts and, if necessary, a small top are best for exposure. [Am J Prev Med, 2007 Mar;32(3):210-6. 45894 (7/2007)] [Am J Prev Med, 2007 Mar;32(3):210-6. 45894 (7/2007)] Summary Interview

Vitamin D - Supplementation - serum 25

Supplementation - serum 25(OH)D levels between 40-60 ng/ml are the target range. This will require at least 2000 IU/day of vitamin D3, and a few minutes (5-15 minutes) in the sun around noon when season allows. Duration of exposure depends on skin type, but more than 15 minutes is rarely needed. 40% of the skin area should be exposed. A hat with a broad brim should always be worn when spending more than a few minutes in the sun. Sun screens prevent photosynthesis of vitamin D and should be avoided during the first 5-15 minutes of exposure. [J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol, 2007;103(3-5):708-711. 45265 (2/2008)] Summary Interview

Vitamin D - Toxicity (1)

Toxicity is exaggerated. Consuming more than 40,000 IU/day for many months with circulating calcium levels increasing. [J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol, 2007;103(3-5):708-711. 45265 (1/2008)] Summary Interview

Vitamin D - Toxicity (2)

Toxicity is exaggerated. Consuming more than 40,000 IU/day for many months with circulating calcium levels increasing. [Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:842-856. 32120 (1999)] Summary Interview

Vitamin D- Cancer

Cancer - incidence rates of cancers of the breast, colon and ovary are much lower in sunny places in the world; cancers of the kidney and endometrium are lower in sunny regions; inverse associations of serum 25(OH)D with cancers of the breast and ovary; and a study showing vitamin D levels reduce colon cancer risk. [J Steroid Biochem Molec Biol, 2007;103(3-5):708-711. 45265 (2/2008)] Summary

Vitamin E- Supplementation

Supplementation with alpha-tocopherol decreased cellular gamma-tocopherol, whereas mixed tocopherols (containing mainly gamma) increased both alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in serum and cells. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2006 Jan;83(1):95102. 44155/44447 (2/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitamin K - bioavailability - 39149

Bioavailability - vitamin K1 from food is approximately two to five fold less bioavailable than vitamin K1 from supplements. [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2001;4:483-487. 39149 (2002)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitamin K - deficiency - 36503/23088

Deficiency is common if defined as Gla-content of the bone protein osteocalcin being below normal. [Ann Rev Nutr, 1995;15:1-22. 36503/23088 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitamin K - half-life - 39149

Half-life of vitamin K2 in plasma is significantly longer than K1, allowing for longer availability to extrahepatic tissues, like bone, than vitamin K1. [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2001;4:483-487. 39149 (2002)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitamin K - osteocalcin - 36503/23088

Functions as a cofactor in formation of Gla-residues in 3 bone proteins: osteocalcin, matrix Gla-protein and protein S synthesized by bone forming osteoblasts. These three Gla-proteins increase the calcium-binding capacity of the organic matrix of the bone. Vitamin K may stimulate osteoblast differentiation and reduce osteoclast activity (bone resorption). [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2001;4:483-487. 39149 (2002)][Ann Rev Nutr, 1995;15:1-22. 36503/23088 (1995)] [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2001;4:483-487. 39149 (2002)][Ann Rev Nutr, 1995;15:1-22. 36503/23088 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitamin K - Synthesis

Synthesis - Vitamin K1 is synthesized by plants, vitamin K2 is produced by bacteria. [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2001;4:483-487. 39149 (2002)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitamin K - Undercaboxylated osteocalcin

Undercaboxylated osteocalcin - vitamin K assessment. [Maturitas, 2002 Mar 25;41(3):211-21. 43720 (12/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitammin D - Levels (optimal)

Levels (optimal) - 25 hydroxy vitamin D3 20 ng/ml deficient; 40 ng/ml sufficient; and 60 ng/ml optimal [Am J Prev Med, 2007 Mar;32(3):210-6. 45061/45894 (7/2007)] [Am J Prev Med, 2007 Mar;32(3):210-6. 45061/45894 (7/2007)] Summary Interview

Vitiligo - folic acid, vitamin b12 - 29529

Vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) 1 mg and folic acid 5 mg in tablets b.i.d. for three months. [Acta Derm Venereol (Stockh) 1997;77:460-462. 29529 (1999)] Summary Interview PubMed

Vitiligo - zinc - 50314

Zinc in two 220-mg zinc sulfate (100 mg elemental zinc in the two capsules) capsules per day for teenagers and adults, and 10 mg/kg of body weight from elemental zinc in the form of zinc sulfate syrup (10 mg elemental zinc / 5 cc of syrup) for children with topical corticosteroids. [Indian J Dermatol, 2011 Sep-Oct;56(5):480–484. 50314 (5/2014)] Interview PubMed

Vitramin D - Insufficiency elderly

Insufficiency is common, especially in the elderly, due to lack of food sources and poor sun exposure. [Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:842-856. 32120 (1999)] [Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:842-856. 32120 (1999)] Summary Interview PubMed
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