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Expert Pearls

Abdominal Pain

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Vegan / Vegetarian Diet

Ventricular Function

Very Low Birth Weight Infants

Veterinary Medicine

Violence

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Vitamins

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Weight Gain

Wilson Disease

Xerostomia (Dry Mouth)

 

Bone Loss - fruit - vegetable - 43791

Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with increased bone density. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep; 82(3):700-6. 43791 (10/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - genistein - 45456

Genistein 54 mg/d in divided doses irregardless of meals increased BMD at 24 months. [Ann Intern Med, 2007; 146(12): 839-47. 45456 (9/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - green tea, tai chi - 49070

Green tea polyphenols (GTPs) at 500 mg per day (to mimic human consumption equivalent to 4-6 cups of green tea per day) taken in 250 mg capsules 2 times daily after meals by itself or with Tai Chi 3 times weekly at 60 minutes per session. [Osteoporos Int, 2011 July 16; [Epub ahead of print]. 49070 (4/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - homocysteine - 43680 / 43772

Homocysteine is elevated in serum. [Bone, 2005 Aug;37(2):234-42. 43680/ 43772 (10/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - inulin-type fructan - 43542

Inulin-type fructan 8 g/d (Raftilose® Synergy1®, Orafti, N.V., Tienen, Belgium). [Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Aug;82(2):471-6. 43542 (9/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - isoflavones - 36989

Isoflavones in soy containing foods such as tofu, kinako and natto, etc. are protective. [Osteoporos Int, 2000;11:721-724. 36989 (2001)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - magnesium - 30545

Magnesium 350 mg/d (elemental from magnesium carbonate and oxide in a dissolvable powder) reduced bone turnover in health males. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 1998;83:2742-2748. 30545 (1998)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - Menaquinone-7, MK-7, vitamin k2 - 49581

Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone-7/MK-7)at 180 ug/d in healthy postmenopausal women in a single dose with the main meal for 3 years showed significantly Menaquinone-7/MK-7improved vitamin K status and decreased age-related decline in bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck, but not at the total hip. Bone strength was also benefitted by MK-7. MK-7 significantly decreased the loss in vertebral height of the lower thoracic region at the mid-site of the vertebrae. No side effects were noted. [Osteoporos Int, 2013 March 23; [Epub ahead of print]. 49581 (5/2103)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - methylmalonic acid - 43680 / 43772

Methylmalonic acid elevated in serum. [Bone, 2005 Aug;37(2):234-42. 43680/ 43772 (10/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - milk - 43791

Milk intake inversely related to bone loss. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):700-6. 43791 (10/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - minerals - 32023

Minerals - higher intakes of magnesium and potassium were significantly associated with greater bone mineral density in both men and women (may buffer the acid load from standard diet, creating a more alkaline environment slowing mineral removal from bone). [Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:727-736. 32023 (1999)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - natto - 44310

Natto 1-4 servings per week (350 microgram of menaquinone-7 per serving; isoflavones). [J Nutr, 2006; 136(5):1323-8. 44310 (6/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid - 43033 / 934-938

Omega-6:omega-3 fatty acid ratio - increased ratio is associated with increased risk to bone loss. Reduce ratio by increasing omega-3's from fish, flax, walnuts, etc. and decrease omega-6's from vegetable oils and animal fat. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2005;81:934-938. 43033/934-938 5/2005] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - plant protein - 22584

Plant protein leads to less excretion of calcium and achieves calcium balance with lower calcium intake than an animal protein-rich diet. [Nutrition Research, 1994;14(12):1853-1895. 22584 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - premature delivery, vitamin d - 49003

Hypovitaminosis D in perinatal Japanese females (25-OHD concentration ≤ 20 ng/ml), was found in 85 mothers (89.5%). Serum 25-OHD levels were negatively associated with serum type I collagen NTx and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. Mothers with threatened premature delivery had significantly lower 25-OHD levels (11.2 ± 3.2 ng/ml) than those in mothers with normal delivery (15.6 ± 5.1 ng/ml). [J Bone Miner Metab, 2011 Sept; 29(5): 615-20. 49003 (2/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - protein - 22386

Protein - for every 1 gm of protein ingested, about 1 mg of calcium is lost in the urine. [Osteoporosis International, 1995;5:97-102. 22386 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - protein - 31858

Protein either from animal or plant is necessary for bone health with an alkaline diet from plant food reducing the sulfur amino acids which are metabolized to sulfuric acid which pulls calcium from bone when excreted. [J Nutr, 1998;128:1054-1057. 31858 (1999)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - protein - 36705

Protein - a high animal:vegetable protein ratio (4 x as much protein from animal than vegetable) had three times the rate of bone loss and 3.7 times as many hip fractures as the women in the low animal:vegetable protein ratio (equal amounts of protein from animal and vegetable foods). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2001;73:118-122. 36705 (2001)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - resistance training - 46840

Resistance training. [Osteoporos Int, 2008 Nov 20; [Epub ahead of print]. 46840 (1/2009)] Summary

Bone Loss - resistance training - 46840

Resistance training. [Osteoporos Int, 2008 Nov 20; [Epub ahead of print]. 46840 (1/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - sodium - 22386

Sodium - for every 2,300 mg of sodium ingested, 52 mg of calcium is lost in the urine. [Osteoporosis International, 1995;5:97-102. 22386 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - soy protein - 35987

Soy protein isolate containing genistein (50.7 mg/day), daidzein (26.9 mg/day), and glycitein (2.8 mg/day) incorporated into muffins, common foods or beverages with a total protein intake of 40 gm/d from soy prevented spinal bone loss in estrogen deficient-postmenopausal women. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2000;72:844-852. 35987 (2001)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - testosterone - 43124

Testosterone enanthate 200 mg I.M. alone every 2 weeks or testosterone with finasteride 5 mg/d for 3 years significantly improved bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and hip in males 65 years of age and older. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2004;89(2):503-510. 43124 (6/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vegan diet - 48956

Vegan diets had a non-significant lower rate of bone loss than non-vegans, with lower calcium intake and vitamin D levels. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2011 Aug 3; [Epub ahead of print]. 48956 (1/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin b12 - 43680 / 43772

Vitamin B12 low in serum. [Bone. 2005 Aug;37(2):234-42. 43680/43772 (10/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin d - 43720

Vitamin D (1 α-hydroxycholecalciferol 0.5 μg/d) plus K2 15 mg t.i.d.. [Maturitas, 2002 Mar 25;41(3):211-21. 43720 (12/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin d - 43866 / 44434

Vitamin D (25 dihydroxy vitamin D) ≥ 20 ng/mL or 50 nmol/L. [JAMA, 2005 Nov 9;294(18):2336-41. 43866/44434 (3/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k - 15206 / 23088

Vitamin K administration decreased 2-h fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine and calcium/creatinine ratios, both markers of bone resorption. [Ann Rev Nutr, 1995;15:1-22. 15206/23088 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k - 15206 / 23088

Vitamin K intake increased circulating osteocalcin and bone-derived alkaline phosphatase, both markers of bone formation. [Ann Rev Nutr, 1995;15: 1-22. 15206/23088 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k - 15206 / 23088

Vitamin K is a cofactor in formation of Gla-residues in 3 bone proteins: osteocalcin, matrix Gla-protein and protein S synthesized by bone forming osteoblasts. These Gla-proteins increase the calcium-binding capacity of the organic matrix of the bone. Vitamin K may stimulate osteoblast differentiation and reduce osteoclast activity (bone resorption). [Ann Rev Nutr, 1995;15:1-22. 15206/23088 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k - 24458

Vitamin K is present in the bone matrix in high concentrations; inhibits osteoclasts and stimulates osteoblasts. [Challenges of Modern Medicine, 1995;7:357-366. 24458 (1996)] Summary Interview

Bone Loss - vitamin k - 26239 / 26230

Vitamin K insufficiency is a potential risk factor. [Calcif. Tissue Int., 1996;59: 352-356. 26239/26230 (1997)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k - 39149

Vitamin K is a cofactor in formation of Gla-residues in 3 bone proteins: osteocalcin, matrix Gla-protein and protein S synthesized by bone forming osteoblasts. These Gla-proteins increase the calcium-binding capacity of the organic matrix of the bone. Vitamin K may stimulate osteoblast differentiation and reduce osteoclast activity (bone resorption). [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2001;4:483-487. 39149 (2002)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k - 48617

Vitamin K in the diet improved status of bone properties, including markers of strength and porosity rather than bone mineral density. [Bone, 2011 April 4; [Epub ahead of print]. 48617 (5/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k1 - 15206 / 23088

Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) 1 mg/d. [Ann Rev Nutr, 1995;15:1-22. 15206/ 23088 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k2 - 15206 / 23088

Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) 45 mg/d. [Ann Rev Nutr, 1995;15:1-22. 15206/ 23088 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k2 - 36989

Vitamin K2 90 mg/d. [Osteoporos Int, 2000;11:721-724. 36989 (2001)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k2 - 39149

Vitamin K2 15 mg t.i.d.. [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2001;4:483-487. 39149 (2002)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k2 - 43635 / 41865

Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) 45 mg/d reduced bone loss and incidence of hepatic carcinoma in patients with viral cirrhosis. [JAMA, July 21, 2004;292(3):358-361. 43635/41865 (10/2004)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bone Loss - vitamin k2 - 43720

Vitamin K2 15 mg t.i.d.. [Maturitas, 2002 Mar 25;41(3):211-21. 43720 (12/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Anti-infective factors

Anti-infective factors are in breastmilk (i.e. lysozymes, immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, nucleotides). [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 20842/20482 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis risk as an adult may be lowered by being breast fed as a child. [Am J Prev Med, 1995;11:26-33. 21844 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - dha, docosahexaenoic acid - 48916

DHA 400 mg/day (each softgel capsule containing 100 mg DHA) taken from the twelfth week of gestation and continued until the end of the fourth post-partum month in breast-feeding women improved cytotoxicity and reduced pro-inflammatory mediators in infants. [Mediators Inflamm. 2011;2011:493925 48916 (12/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus - being exclusively breast-fed for at least two months reduced risk to diabetes in Pima Indians by 50% compared to those not breast-fed. [The Lancet, July 19, 1997;350:166-168. 27905 (1997)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Duration

Duration - optimal practice is 6 months of exclusive breast feeding (World Health Organization). Current recommendation is 4 to 6 months of exclusive breast feeding. Gradual introduction of solid foods at 4 to 6 months - not for nutrition but for the baby to start learning how use muscles to chew the food. Continued breast feeding for a minimum of two years (World Health Organization). American Academy of Pediatrics says a minimum of one year. Worldwide, the average age at weaning is 4.2 years. [Am J Prev Med, 1995;11:26-33. 21844 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Ear infections

Ear infections - the more a baby is exclusively breast fed in the first 6 months, the greater the protection against ear infections. [Am J Prev Med, 1995;11:26-33. 21844 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Infections

Infections - protection against ear infections and urinary tract infections persists for a significant period of time beyond the time that breast feeding stops. [Am J Prev Med, 1995;11:26-33. 21844 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Infections - 2

Infections - reduced diarrhea and respiratory infections. [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 20842/20482 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Microwaving frozen breast milk

Microwaving frozen breast milk can reduce anti-infective factors. [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 20842/20482 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Premature infants

Premature infants - mature breast milk may not be optimal nutrition for the premature infant. Ideal would be to take human breast milk and remove some of the water, concentrating the components including calcium, protein and all the anti-infective factors and give that to the premature infant. [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 20842/20482 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Toxins

Toxins - Breast milk contamination from PCBs and dioxins derived from animal fats in foods, especially fish and dairy products, may cause subclinical symptoms in babies of mothers with high levels of PCBs and dioxins including immunosuppression, abnormal neurologic development and thyroid hormone dysregulation, and possibly problems with reproduction and cancer in the future. The toxic limit in breast milk is 80 pg TEQ/gr milk fat. Fish are polluted by manufacturers who dump chemicals into the rivers polluting lakes and the sea. Milk is contaminated by waste incinerators. [Eur J Obst Gynecol Repro Biol, 1995;61:73-78. 23706 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Vitamin D

Vitamin D 6000 IU/d during lactation is safe and provides up to 500 IU of vitamin D to the infant. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2004;80(suppl):1752S-1758S. 42457 (01/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Breast Feeding - Water

Water addition to breast milk does not reduce anti-infective factors. [Clinical Pediatrics, June, 1994:325-329. 20842/20482 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Bronchiectasis - Beta-carotene

Bronchiectasis Beta-carotene 20 mg t.i.d. (0.6 mg/kg t.i.d.) lowered plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde. [Acta Paediatr, 2002;91:793-798. 39678 (2003)] Summary Interview PubMed

Burns - Copper

Copper 2.5-3.1 mg/day, selenium 315-380 mcg/day and zinc 26.2-31.4 mg/day via a central venous line. [Crit Care, 2006;10(6): R153 [Epub ahead of print]. 44777 (2/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

Burns - Honey dressings

Honey dressings shorted the duration of healing and provided a sterile wound within 7 days in fresh-partial thickness burns. [Burns, 1996;22(6):491-493. 25774 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - alpha-linolenic acid - 42396

Alpha-linolenic acid 8 g/d. [Br J Nutr, 2004;92:649-655. 42396 (02/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - cereal fiber - 44054

Cereal fiber consumption lowered C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and insulin. [Diabetes Care,2006; 29(2): 207-11. 44054 (3/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - chocolate - 46679

Chocolate (dark) 20 gms every 3 days lowered CRP. [J Nutr, 2008; 138(10): 1939-45. 46679 (12/2008)] Summary PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - fiber - 44191 / 44784

Fiber - increase fiber intake 20-35 gm (inversely related to CRP levels). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2006 Apr;83(4):760-6. 44191 / 44784 (5/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - fiber - 47014

Fiber (dietary) consumption between 3.3 - 7.8 g/MJ significantly lowered CRP by 25% - 54%. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2009 Feb 18; [Epub ahead of print]. 47014 (5/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - fruit and vegetables - 44896

Fruit and vegetable intake reduce CRP. [Am J Clin Nut., 2006;84(6):1489-97. 44896 (2/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - functional foods - 49152

Function foods resulting in low glycemic meals (antioxidant-rich foods, oily fish for omega-3 fatty acids, viscous dietary fibers, soybean and whole barley kernel products, almonds, stanols and a probiotic). Risk factors reduced were plasma levels of blood lipids (total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides), lipoprotein fractions and CRP, and a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure. [Nutr Metab (Lond), 2012 April 2;9(1):29. 49152 (5/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - garlic - 49298

Garlic - aged garlic extract compound (Kyolic Formula 109) delivering1200 mg of AGE and 120 mg of CoQ10 (4 tablets per day). [Nutrition, 2012 Aug 1; [Epub ahead of print]. 49298 (8/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - isoflavone - 46714

Isoflavone 80 mg/day in a single dose with or without food. [Eur Heart J, 2008 Sept 23; [Epub ahead of print]. 46714 (12/2008)] Summary PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - magnesium - 44508

Magnesium > 400 mg/d. [Nutrition Research, 2006; 26(5):193-196. 44508 (9/2006)] Summary Interview

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - magnesium citrate - 45307

Magnesium citrate 300 mg/d in single or divided dose with or away from meals lowered CRP in congestive heart failure patients. [Eur J Nutr, 2007 May 3; [Epub ahead of print]. 45307 (7/2007)] Summary Interview

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - mediterranean diet - 43997/44405

Mediterranean diet reduced CRP levels (high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread and other cereals, potatoes, beans, nuts and seeds; olive oil is an important monounsaturated fat source; dairy products, fish and poultry are consumed in low to moderate amounts, and little red meat is eaten; eggs are consumed zero to four times a week; wine is consumed in low to moderate amounts). [Ann Nutr Metab, 2006;50(1):20-4. Epub 2005 Nov 4. 43997/44405 (3/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - protein - 46326

Protein (30% soy protein, 35% textured soy protein and 35% animal protein) .8 mg/kg/d. [Diabetes Care, 2008; 31(4): 648-54. 46326 (8/2008)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - pycnogenol™ - 46883

Pycnogenol™ 50 mg per tablet taken twice a day, after breakfast and after dinner. [Redox Rep, 2008; 13(6): 271-6. 46883 (3/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - sea buckthorn berries - 45469

Sea buckthorn berries 28 g/d (16.7 mg/d of flavonol glycosides = 8.4 mg/d of flavonol aglycones; vitamin C 15.6 mg/d and vitamin E - alpha-tocopherol 1.1 mg/d) reduced CRP levels. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2007 Jun 27; [Epub ahead of print]. 45469 (9/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - vitamin C - 46780

Vitamin C 1000 mg/d in divided doses morning and evening with meals. [Free Radic Biol Med, 2008 Oct 10; [Epub ahead of print]. 46780 (12/2008)] Summary PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - vitamin E - 35817

Vitamin E 800 IU/d in type II diabetics. [Diabetes Care, June, 2000;23(6):733-738. 35817 (2000)] Summary Interview PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - weight loss - 46780

Weight loss. [Free Radic Biol Med, 2008 Oct 10; [Epub ahead of print]. 46780 (12/2008)] Summary PubMed

C-Reactive Protein (lowering) - whole grain - 44054

Whole grain consumption lowered C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and insulin. [Diabetes Care,2006; 29(2): 207-11. 44054 (3/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (bladder) - Vitamin/mineral

Vitamin/mineral combination - vitamin A 40,000 U/d, vitamin B6 100 mg/d, vitamin C 2000 mg/d, vitamin E 400 U/d, zinc 90 mg/d and remaining multiple vitamins at the daily recommended allowances x 4 years reduced cancer recurrence by 40%. [Family Practice News, December 15, 1996;12. 23928; The Journal of Urology, January 1994;151:21-26. 19736 (1996)] Summary Interview

Cancer (breast) - 2-OHE to16α-OHE1 - 43897

2-OHE to16α-OHE1 (high levels increase risk in HRT users). [Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Sep;14(9):2137-42. 43897 (12/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (Breast) - acetyl-l-carnitine, chemotherapy-induced - 49654

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) at 3,000 mg per day in 409 women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy increased chemotherapy-induced neuropathy (CIPN). [J Clin Oncol, 2013 Jun 3; [Epub ahead of print]. 49654 (7/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - alcohol - 32125

Alcohol consumption increases risk, which may be reduced by adequate folate intake (among women who consumed approximately one drink per day of alcohol, the risk of breast cancer was highest among those with low folate intake. [JAMA, May 5, 1999;281(17):1632-1637. 32125 (1999)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - breastfeeding - 21844

Breastfeeding reduces premenopausal risk. [Am J Prev Med, 1995;11;26-33. 21844 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - carbohydrate - 46879

Carbohydrate intake correlated with increased breast cancer risk in urban setting (Shanghai).

[Am J Clin Nutr, Jan 2009;89(1):283-9. Epub 2008 Dec 3. 46879 (4/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - carnitine - 45095

Carnitine in vitro did not inhibit the efficacy of epirubicin against breast cancer cells. It may be beneficial in breast cancer patients to protect against cardiotoxocity while enhancing drug efficacy. [Cancer Lett, 2007 Feb 1; [Epub ahead of print]. 45095 (5/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - diet - fiber - vegetables - 45000/45596

Diets higher in dietary fiber, vegetables and other nutrients, including folate, vitamin C and carotenoids (e.g.beta-carotene) improved overall survival, while eating higher amounts of fat reduced overall survival after breast cancer diagnosis. [Nutr Cancer, 2006;55(2):132-40. 45000/45596 (4/2007)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - diet - fish - vegetables - 24884

Diets high in raw vegetables and fish conferred a significant protection against breast cancer (about 30% decreased risk in the highest intake quintile). [Lancet, May 18, 1996;347:1351-1356. 24884 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - diet - starch - 24884

Diets with increasing intakes of starch, chiefly from refined bread and pasta, had an increased risk of breast cancer. [Lancet, May 18, 1996;347:1351-1356. 24884 (1996)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - dietary fat - 22879

Diets going from high fat to low fat decreased the proliferation of mammary carcinoma. [Oncology, 1995;52:265-271. 22879 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - exercise - 43958/44289

Exercise, its total duration, especially late afternoon or evening, increases night-time melatonin production and may be chemopreventive. [Am J Epidemiol, 2005 Dec 1;162(11):1114-22. Epub 2005 Oct 5. 43958/ 44289 (1/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - fish - 22879

Fish consumption protects against human breast cancer. [Oncology, 1995;52: 265-271. 22879 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - folic acid - 43734

Folic acid higher in the diet reduced risk to estrogen receptor negative breast cancer. [Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Aug;14(8):2004-8. 43734 (10/2005)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - fruit, plant-based, vegetables - 49773

Breast cancer risk with a plant-based pattern (high in fruits and vegetables) was s associated with a 34% decreased risk of ER-/PR- breast cancer while the salad and wine diet (low in fruits and vegetables) was associated with a 29% increased risk among those with ER+/PR+ tumors. Recommendations for decreasing breast cancer risk are to: 1) Limit fried foods, sweetened foods and other foods that are caloric but non-nutritious, since they will cause weight gain.  Being overweight increases risk for postmenopausal breast cancer. 2) Limit alcohol intake. There is good evidence that one glass of wine a day, particularly red wine, may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease without increasing breast cancer risk. 3) Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, especially cruciferous vegetables.  The evidence that this will help decrease breast cancer risk is not so solid, but in theory it makes a lot of sense, and this study indicates that they are beneficial. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2013 Oct 9; [Epub ahead of print]. 49773 (12/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - ginseng root - 44431/44878

Ginseng root 1.3 mg/d (p. quinquefolius, American Ginseng). [Am J Epidemiol, 2006 Apr 1;163(7):645-53. Epub 2006 Feb 16. 44431/44878 (5/2006)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - linoleic acid - 22879

Linoleic acid in either animal, meat or vegetable oils is associated with breast cancer risk. [Oncology, 1995;52:265-271. 22879 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - magnesium - 48726

Magnesium oxide 400 mg escalating to 800 mg by mouth daily, many times taken before bed reduced hot flash frequency and severity. [Support Care Cancer, 2011 June;19(6):859-63. 48726 (08/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - mammography

Mammography screening (and breast exams) at age 50 and beyond reduces the rate of breast cancer death by 30%. [Ann Int Med, April 1, 1995;122(7): 550-552 (1996)] PubMed

Cancer (breast) - mammography - 50150

Screening mammography over the last quarter century has more than doubled the rate at which women in the U.S. have been identified with early-stage breast cancer; has artificially inflated the cure rate; and has had little impact on the reduction in breast cancer deaths and the rate at which women present with late-stage cancer or metastatic cancer. Screening mammography has led to the overdiagnosis of an estimated one million women who were told they have early-stage cancer – most of whom underwent surgery, radiation, hormone therapy, molecularly-targeted therapy and in some cases chemotherapy – for a “cancer” that was never destined to progress to late-stage. Screening mammography costs 4 billion dollars a year in the U.S.. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines are more appropriate recommending 13 scans between the ages 50 and 75 at two year intervals.

[N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 22;367(21):1998-2005. 50150 (12/2012)] Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - multivitamin, vitamin c, vitamin e - 48430

Vitamin (C, E, multivitamin) use shortly after breast cancer diagnosis was associated with reduced mortality and recurrence risk. [ Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2010 Dec 21; [Epub ahead of print]. 48430 (2/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - omega-3 fatty acid - 46920

Omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) elevated in RBC is protective. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2009; 89(1):265-76. 46920 (4/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - omega-3 fatty acids - 22879

Omega-3 fatty acids are effective not only for breast cancer prevention but also for adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. [Oncology, 1995;52:265-271. 22879 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (breast) - omega-3 fatty acids - 22879

Fatty acids - dietary omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DHA) reduce mammary tumorogenesis and tumor growth. [Oncology, 1995;52:265-271. 22879 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cancer (Breast) - omega-3 fatty acids - 49811

Omega-3 fatty acid intake and reduced omega-6 to omega-3 ratio reduce mammographic breast density. [Cancer Causes Control, 2014 Jan 9; [Epub ahead of print]. 49811] Summary Interview PubMed
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