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Abdominal Pain

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Cognition - arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, lcpufa - 50247

LCPUFA in infants fed variable amounts of docosahexaenoic acid (0.32% [normal amount in breast milk], 0.64%, and 0.96% of total fatty acids) and arachidonic acid (ARA; 0.64%) showed LCPUFA supplementation did not influence performance on standardized tests of language and performance at 18 mo; but significant positive effects were seen from 3 to 5 y on rule-learning and inhibition tasks, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 5 y, and the Weschler Primary Preschool Scales of Intelligence at 6 years.

[Am J Clin Nutr. 2013 Aug;98(2):403-12. 50247 (10/2103)] Interview PubMed

Cognition - arginine - 34839

Arginine (L-) 400 mg/tab 2 b.i.d. (vascular dementia). [Am J Med, April 1, 2000; 108:439. 34839 (2000)] Summary Interview

Cognition - b vitamins - 48248

B Vitamins folic acid 0.8 mg/d, vitamin B12 0.5 mg/d and vitamin B6 20 mg/d. [PLoS One, 2010;5(9):e12244. 48248 (11/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cognition - chromium picolinate - 47952

Chromium picolinate as 1000 mcg of elemental chromium in one pill per day with the morning meal. [Nutr Neurosci, 2010; 13(3): 116-22. 47952 (7/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cognition - citicoline, memory - 50827

Citicoline at 500 mg 2 times daily improved Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scales in elderly men and women with mild vascular cognitive impairment. [Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:131-7. 50827 (7/2015)] Interview PubMed

Cognition - cocoa flavanols - 48676

Cocoa flavanols (CF) 773 mg from specially prepared dark chocolate in a onetime dose away from meals and after breakfast, with avoidances of caffeine, alcohol, and high flavonoid foods for 24 hours. [Physiol Behav, 2011 June 1;103(3-4): 255-60. 48676 (6/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cognition - creatine - 47670

Creatine at 5 gm qid for 1 week then gms per day. [Dyn Med, 2009 Dec 24; 8(1): 6. Epub ahead of print. 47670 (2/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cognition - creatine monohydrate - 45660

Creatine monohydrate 5 gm q.i.d. in elderly benefitted verbal and visual short term memory and long term memory (with or without meals). [Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn, 2007;14(5): 517-28. 45660 (1/2008)] Summary Interview

Cognition - dha, memory - 49567

DHA at 1.16 g/d from a fish source in capsules with a meal in a single or divided dose improved memory and reaction times of memory and that gender modulated the responses. Reaction times of episodic and working memory improved in the total group but in women, episodic memory improved significantly. ApoE did not modulate the responses to DHA treatment with the group as a whole, but when stratified for gender, ApoE may have resulted in greater improvements in reaction times in men who were carriers of the ApoE4 allele. Gender affected cognitive responses to DHA treatment. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2013 March 20; [Epub ahead of print]. 49567 (4/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cognition - diet - 43683 / 43803

Dietary intake of folic acid 400 ug/d, vitamin B6 3 mg/d and vitamin B12 10 ug/d slowed or eliminated cognitive decline in elderly. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):627-35. 43683/43803 (11/2005)] Summary Interview

Cognition - green tea - 50050

Green tea consumption in ascending order of intake 1 to 5 or more cups per day is associated with a reduction in functional disability (cognitive function, depression, psychological distress, stroke) and healthy life expectancy, in a dose dependent fashion. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 March;95(3):732–739. 50050 (5/2012)] Interview PubMed

Cognition - homocysteine - 31018

Homocysteine elevation and dietary intake less than folic acid 400 ug/d, vitamin B6 3 mg/d and vitamin B12 10 ug/d increased cognitive decline. [Am J Clin Nutr, 1998;68:1104-10. 31018 (1999)] Summary Interview

Cognition - homocysteine - 43803

Homocysteine elevation and dietary intake less than folic acid 400 ug/d, vitamin B6 3 mg/d and vitamin B12 10 ug/d increased cognitive decline. [Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):627-35. 43803 (11/2005)] Summary Interview

Cognition - hormone replacement therapy - 34054

Hormone replacement therapy (estradiol 1-2 mg/d plus synthetic progestins) reduced risk of cognitive impairment by 64%. [Menopause, 2005;12(1): 12-17. 34054 (5/2005)] Summary

Cognition - melatonin - 45955

Melatonin 3-6 mg (fast-release) at bedtime improved cognitive function in subjects with minimally impaired cognition. [J Pineal Res, 2007; 43(4): 404-409. 45955 (3/2008)] Summary Interview

Cognition - multivitamin - 49384

A multivitamin (Swisse Women’s 50+ formulation) designed for women aged over 50 years was given to women 64-82 years of age for 16 weeks once daily with breakfast improved spatial working memory performance.

[Physiol Behav, 2012, Aug 23;107(3):346-354 49384 (11/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cognition - nutraceutical combination - 46908

Nutraceutical Combination - Folic acid 400 mcg/d, vitamin E 30 IU/d, vitamin B12 6 mcg/d, S-adenosyl methionine 400mg/d, N-acetylcysteine 600mg/d and acetyl-L-carnitine 500 mg/d in 2 pills per day taken at any time improved cognition and mood. [J Alzheimer's Dis Other Demen, Dec/Jan 2009;23(6):571-585] [ Am J Alzheimer's Dis Other Demen, 2008 Dec 3; [Epub ahead of print]. 46908 (2/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cognition - nutraceutical combination - 46908

Nutraceutical Combination - Folic acid 400 mcg/d, vitamin E 30 IU/d, vitamin B12 6 mcg/d, S-adenosyl methionine 400mg/d, N-acetylcysteine 600mg/d and acetyl-L-carnitine 500 mg/d in 2 pills per day taken at any time improved cognition and mood. [J Alzheimer's Dis Other Demen, Dec/Jan 2009;23(6):571-585] [ Am J Alzheimer's Dis Other Demen, 2008 Dec 3; [Epub ahead of print]. 46908 (2/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cognition - omega-3 fatty acids, dha, epa - 48773

Omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in the range of 540 mg EPA combined with 360 mg DHA daily showed significant reductions in arterial stiffness. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2011 Feb;93(2):446-54. 48773 (8/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cognition - p ycnogenol™- 46830

Pycnogenol™ two 50mg tablets in the morning and one 50 mg tablet in the evening after meals. [J Psychopharmacol, 2008;22(5):553-62. 46830 (12/2008)] Summary

Cognition - thyroid function - 45945

Thyroid function - TSH concentrations higher than 2.2 presented lower scores in neurodevelopmental skills, as well as higher risk of attention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. Higher free T4 levels were associated with a decreased risk of ADHD. [Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2007 Jun;66(6):890-8. 45945 (1/2008)] Summary Interview

Cognition - vitamin c, vitamin e - 34890

Vitamin C, vitamin E supplements regularly (at least once a week) showed 88% less likely to have vascular dementia and 69% less likely to have forms of dementia other than vascular or Alzheimer’s related dementia or mixed forms of dementia. [Neurology, 2000;54:1265-1272. 34890 (2000)] Summary Interview

Cognition - walnuts - 48953

Walnut containing banana bread equaling two servings (½ cup or 60 g) of ground walnuts (6.80 g of ALA) per day improved inferential verbal reasoning (critical thinking). [Br J Nutr, 2011 Sep 19: 1-9. [Epub ahead of print]. 48953 (1/2012)] Summary Interview PubMed

Colic (infantile) - Food elimination

Food elimination (mother and child - wheat, cow's milk, eggs, peanuts, fish, artificial colorings, preservatives and flavorings) benefits up to 50% of infants with colic if done within the first 6 weeks after birth. [J Allergy Clin Immunol, December, 1995;886-890. 24037 (1996)] Summary Interview

Colic (infantile) - lactobacillus reuter - 49778i

Lactobacillus reuteri 1x108 CFU/day showed benefit (a reduction in crying) in breastfed infants with colic. No benefit was seen in formula fed infants. No short-term side effects were seen.

[JAMA Pediatr, 2013 Oct 7; [Epub ahead of print]. 49778 (11/2013)] Summary Interview PubMed

Colic (infantile) - Probiotic

Probiotic (L. reuteri) -100 million live bacteria delivered in 5 drops of a commercially available oil suspension once a day, 30 minutes after feeding showed improvement in 7 days and significant improvement in 28 days. [Pediatrics, 2007; 119(1): e124-130. 44989 (4/2007)] Summary Interview

Common Cold - Buckwheat honey

Buckwheat honey q. 3-4 hrs prn cough in the following doses: a) Children <1 year: Do not use. b) Children 1 - 5 years: ½ teaspoon. c) Children 6 - 11 years: 1 teaspoon and d) age 12 and up: 2 teaspoons. [Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2007;161(12):1140-6. 45925 (2/2008)] Summary Interview

Common Cold - echinacea purpurea extract - 50185

Echinacea purpurea extract (EPE, Echinaforce), an alcoholic tincture prepared from the herb and roots of Echinacea purpurea exhibiting broad activity against a variety of respiratory viruses, and also reduced local inflammation, given at 0.9 ml (25 drops) dissolved in a sip of water and held for 10 seconds in the mouth then swallowed, 3 x daily for prophylaxis, increased to 5 x daily during the acute phase of a common cold, resulted in a considerable preventive effect in the overall cold episodes and total episode days; significantly prevented recurrent infections; and reduced virally confirmed respiratory infections with superior effects against membranous viruses like influenza, respiratory syncytial- or corona-viruses. There were no greater side effects compared to controls. [Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012;2012:841315. 50185 (3/2013)] Interview PubMed

Common Cold - juice plus® - 48189

Juice Plus® at four capsules daily for six months reduced cold and flu symptoms. [Br J Nutr, 2010 Aug 23;1-5; [Epub ahead of print]. 48189 (11/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Common Cold - Mold allergy

Mold allergy - reduce humidity in house; clean house regularly; look for stains or wet surfaces; teach children not to eat in the bedroom, not to leave the TV in the bedroom, and not to lie on carpet; clean the carpet regularly; maintain good circulation of the air throughout the house; and open the windows when weather permits. [Clinical Pediatrics, December 1997;695-699. 28908 (1998)] Summary Interview

Common Cold - Vitamin C

Vitamin C 1-6 gm/d. [J Am Coll Nutr, 1995;14(2):116-123. 22115 (1995)] Summary Interview

Common Cold - vitamin c - 49909

Vitamin C 1000 mg daily (500 mg 2 x daily) reduced cold symptoms and duration, and improve energy. [Nutrients 2014 Jul 9; 6(7): 2572-83. 49909 (11/2014)] Summary Interview PubMed

Common Cold - vitamin c - 50321

Vitamin C 1-5 grams per day decreased the occurrence of asthma attacks or bronchial reactivity in those who had upper respiratory infections. Individual therapeutic trials of vitamin C are encouraged as soon as cold symptoms start with doses up to, or above 6-8 grams per day. No one knows the most clinically beneficial dose of vitamin C. Vitamin C is cheap and safe. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2013 Nov 26;9(1):46. 50321 (5/2014) Interview PubMed

Common Cold - zinc acetate lozenges - 48817

Zinc acetate lozenges at 75 mg per day or more (without binders in the zinc lozenges) started as soon after the onset of common cold symptoms as possible at 2 hour intervals. 80 to 90 mg of zinc as zinc acetate without additives that bind zinc were most effective. [Open Respir Med J, 2011;5:51-8. Epub ahead of print. 48817 (9/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Common Cold - Zinc gluconate glycine lozenges

Zinc gluconate glycine lozenges (13.3 mg) sucked on q. 2 hrs (6 in a day). Though beneficial supplemented subjects had more side effects than placebo subjects. [Ann Intern Med, July 15, 1996;125(2):81-88. 25352 (1996)] Summary Interview

Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) - vitamin c - 47614

Vitamin C at 1 gram per day following foot and ankle surgery prevented Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS I). [Foot Ankle Surg, 2009;15(4):179-82. 47614 (2/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Constipation - cow’s milk elimination - 38145

Cow's milk elimination (total). Allergic constipation probably T-cell mediated. [Clin Pediatr, July 2001;399-402. 38145 (2002)] Summary Interview PubMed

Constipation - food allergy / intolerance - 21598

Food allergy/intolerance (cow’s milk protein, eggs, tomatoes, fish and citrus fruit, etc.). [J Pediatr, January 1995;126:34-39. 21598 (1995)] Summary Interview PubMed

Constipation - rye bread - 47781

Rye bread at a minimum of 240 grams per day of rye bread included in several meals, a single meal, a snack, or all at once. [J Nutr, 2010 Jan 20; [Epub ahead of print]. 47781 (4/2010)] Summary Interview PubMed

Contraception - Naturally family planning

Naturally family planning using predominantly cervical mucus (Billings Method) and/or cervical signs and temperature rise (Symptothermal Method) is a highly effective form of birth control in developing countries in motivated couples. [The Lancet, 1995;343:233-234. 22901 (1995)] Summary Interview

Coronary Artery Disease - combination therapy - 46916

Combination Therapy - Niaspan® 500-1500 mg/d at dinner-time; EPA + DHA mean dose of 1440 mg/d in a divided dose with breakfast and dinner; vitamin D 3590 IU/d (25-hydroxy vitamin D of 50-60 nag/ml) in gel cap form; and the American Heart Association Step II diet with 30% of calories from fat, ≤7% from saturated fat either stopped or reversed calcium scores. The goal was to get LDL < 60, HDL > 60 and triglycerides < 60 with the above approach. There was marked improvement in this program with the addition of vitamin D. [Am J Ther, 2008 Dec 15; [Epub ahead of print]. 46916 (3/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Altitude

Altitude - living at higher altitude is protective - hypothesis is more ultraviolet light exposure is protective. [Quart J Med, 1996;89:579-589. 26440 (1997)] Summary Interview

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Anger

Anger (high scores on The Anger Expression Scale) was significantly associated with coronary calcification regardless of the risk factors. [Yonsei Med J, October 2003;44(5):793-799. 41363 (2004)] Summary Interview

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Angioplasty restenosis/“hostility’

Angioplasty restenosis prevention by “hostility’ reduction with an educational component; biofeedback training in techniques (non-pharmacological) learned in several hours, consistent with their lifestyle, giving them the ability to control hemodynamic/blood pressure, sympathetic nervous system/adrenaline hyper-reactivity; and behavioral strategies customized to each patient's traditional cardiac risk-factors (i.e. smoking reduction/cessation, weight loss and easy ways to increase compliance with lipid-lowering diets, etc.). [Mayo Clinic Proceedings, May 1997;172:487. 27376A; Mayo Clinic Proceedings, August 1996;71(8): 729-734; (Editorial, August 1996;71(8):817-819). 27375 (1997)] Summary Interview

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Caffeine

Caffeine intake daily may increase deaths from coronary heart disease 9 to 14; 17 to 24 percent in deaths from stroke. [The Lancet, 1997;349:279-281. 27049 (1997)] Summary Interview

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 100 mg t.i.d. with meals improved endothelial function and extracellular SOD. [Eur Heart J, 2007 Jul 19; [Epub ahead of print]. 45545 (9/2007)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Diet

Diet - refined carbohydrate (high glycemic index) associated with coronary atherosclerotic progression in postmenopausal females. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2004;80:1175-1184. 42311 (12/2004)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Diet - 2

Diet - higher in saturated fat intake was associated with less progression of coronary atherosclerosis in postmenopausal females. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2004;80:1175-1184. 42311 (12/2004)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Diet - 3

Diet - Reduce trans fat and saturated fat intake and replace with cis-unhydrogenated unsaturated fatty acids from natural liquid vegetable oils; reduce the consumption of refined carbohydrates and replace with whole grain products; increase consumption of vegetables and fruits; and balance caloric intake and physical activity to maintain optimal body weight. [NEJ M, Nov 20, 1997;1491-1499. 28614 (1998)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Diet - 4

Diet - eat whole-grain or high fiber carbohydrates instead of refined or high glycemic index carbohydrates. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2004;80:1175-1184. 42311 (12/2004)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Diet - 5

Diet - replace saturated fat with monounsaturated fats, alpha-linolenic acid and omega-3 fatty acids; reduce trans fatty acids; and eat low glycemic unrefined carbohydrate versus refined carbohydrate. [Soc Exp Biol Med, 2000;187-190. 37997 (2001)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Diet - 6

Diet - whole grain (42 grams/day) had a 18% reduced risk of coronary heart disease compared to men with the lowest intake of whole grains (3.5 grams/day). [Am J Clin Nutr, 2004;80:1492-1499. 42441 (01/2005)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Eicosapentaenoic acid

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) 2.4 gm/d + Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) 1.6 gm/d. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2000;72:389-394. 35828 (2000)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA)

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) at 500-1000 mg/d are cardioprotective. [Prev Med, 2004;39:212-220. 42377 (01/2005)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Fish

Fish - primary prevention 8-9 oz per week of oily fish; secondary prevention 3-4 oz per day of fish oil. [Prev Med, 2004;39:212-220. 42377 (01/2005)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Magnesium orotate

Magnesium orotate 1,000 mg (65.6 mg of elemental magnesium) t.i.d.. [Cardiovascular Drugs and Surgery, 1998;12:153-156. 31201 (1999)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Mediterranean diet

Mediterranean diet is cardioprotective. [J Am Coll Cardiol, November 1, 1996; 28(5):1103-8. 26778 (1997)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Mediterranean diet - 2

Mediterranean diet is a non strict vegetarian diet rich in cereals, bread and rice (whole grains preferred); rich in fresh fruits, vegetables and legumes; poor in meat, delicatessen and fat rich dairy products (whole milk, butter and cream were not allowed); edible fats are olive oil, canola oil and a canola oil- derived margarine; a low-fat diet with a conservative protein intake; consumption of fish is encouraged and light wine drinking was allowed. [Arch Intern Med, June 8, 1998;8:1181-1187. 30567 (1998)]

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - N-acetylcysteine

N-acetylcysteine (NAC) I.V. at 50 mg/kg bolus 1 hour pre-operatively (CABG and/or valve surgery) and then at 50 mg/kg/d for the next 48 hours reduced atrial fibrillation. [Eur Heart J, 2008; 29(5): 625-31. 46319 (08/2008)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Omega-3 Index

Omega-3 Index (high omega-3 levels) >8% of total RBC fatty acids as EPA+DHA are associated with a 90% reduction in risk for sudden cardiac death compared to levels <4%. (Omega-3 Index Test online at www.omegametrix.com or by phone at (866) 677-4900). [Prev Med, 2004;39:212-220. 42377 (01/2005)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Vitamin C

Vitamin C 500-1000 mg/d reduces restenosis after coronary angioplasty. [Am J Cardiol, 1996;1284-1286. 26275 (1997)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Vitamin E

Vitamin E 100 to 440 I.U./d. [JAMA, June 21, 1995;273(23):1849-1854. 22666 (1995)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Vitamin E - 2

Vitamin E 100 to 400 I.U./d. [Heart, 1996;76:355-357. 26010 (1996)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease (see also cardiovascular disease) - Vitamin K2

Vitamin K2 (menaquinone) intake from the diet (found in meat, cheese and milk) was inversely related to coronary calcification while vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) dietary intake (found in green vegetables) showed no relationship with coronary calcification. [Atherosclerosis, 2008 July 19; [Epub ahead of print]. 46640 (10/2008)] Summary

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease - Pomegranate

Pomegranate juice 50 ml/d or pomegranate polyphenol extract 5 mL/d in a single dose with a meal. [J Agric Food Chem, 2008; 56(18): 8704-13. 46918 (3/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Coronary Artery/Heart Disease - vegan, vegetarian - 50195

Vegan and vegetarian diets had a 32% lower risk of ischemic heart disease than meat eaters probably from a

lower mean LDL cholesterol and a diet lower in saturated fats and higher in polyunsaturated fats and dietary fiber.

[Am J Clin Nutr, 2013 Mar;97(3):597-603. 50195 (3/2013)] Interview PubMed

Cough (URI) - Buckwheat honey

Buckwheat honey q. 3-4 hrs prn cough in the following doses: a) Children <1 year: Do not use. b) Children 1 - 5 years: ½ teaspoon. c) Children 6 - 11 years: 1 teaspoon and d) age 12 and up: 2 teaspoons .[Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2007;161(12):1140-6. 45925 (2/2008)] Summary

Cough - vitamin b12 - 48489

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) I.M. injections 1000 mcg daily for five days; 1000 mcg weekly for three weeks; and
1000 mcg monthly thereafter in vitamin B21 deficient subjects (serum B12 < 200 pmol/L).
[Am J Clin Nutr, March, 2011;93(3):542-8 (Jan 19; [Epub ahead of print]). 48489 (04/2011)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cow’s Milk - Insulin

Insulinemic and insulinotrophic but low glycemic. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2001;74:96-100. 37796 (2001)] Summary

Critical Illness - Fish oil

Fish oil 0.1 – 0.25 g/kg/d. (Commercially available fish oil-based lipid emulsions have about 4 g of n-3 fatty acids per 10 g of lipids supplied. For a patient of 70 kg and at an infused dose of 0.15 g/kg/d this would result in the provision of about 4 g of n-3 fatty acids per day). [Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2006 Mar;9(2):140-8. 44774 (11/2006)] Summary

Critical Illness - Glutamine

Glutamine 20-30 gm/d P.O. or I.V.. [J Nutr, 2001:2569S-2577S. 38827 (2003)] Summary

Critical Illness - Glutamine - 2

Glutamine, a non-essential amino acid, under stress helps maintain gut barrier function, which prevents bacterial translocation and possible multi-organ system failure. [Nutrition, September/October 1994;10(5): 385-391. 21498 (1995)] Summary

Critical Illness - N-acetylcysteine

N-acetylcysteine 150 mg/kg and then 15 mg/kg/hr from a continuous I.V. infusion inhibited the adverse effects of E. coli endotoxin on renal function. [Crit Care Med, 2007; 35(8):1869-75. 46020 (7/2008)] Summary

Critical Illness - Pyridoxyl 5' phosphate

Pyridoxyl 5' phosphate - plasma PLP concentration significantly and inversely correlated with white blood cell count and neutrophil cell numbers; significantly and positively correlated with total lymphocyte count and T-lymphocyte, B-lymphocyte, T-helper, and suppressor cell numbers. [Nutrition, 2005 Jul-Aug;21(7-8):779-85. 43917 (11/2005)] Summary

Critical Illness - Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 50-100 mg I.M. /d enhanced immune function. [Eur J Clin Nutr, 2006 Oct;60(10):1207-13. Epub 2006 May 3. 45422 (2/2007)] Summary

Critical Illness - Vitamin B6 - 2

Vitamin B6 50-100 mg/d P.O. or IM (critical care patients). [Nutrition, 2005 Jul-Aug;21(7-8):779-85. 43917 (11/2005)] Summary

Critical Illness - Vitamin C

Vitamin C in plasma is low. [Am J Clin Nutr, 1996;63:760-5. 25482 (1996)] Summary

Crohns Disease - vitami d - 50292

Vitamin D3 50,000IU orally weekly for 8 weeks to achieve a serum concentration of 30-36 ng/mL or Crohn’s disease patients with a serum 25(OH)D concentration below 3ng/mL may be given 5000IU per day; patients with levels between 4-9ng/mL given 4000IU/day; patients with levels between 10-15ng/mL given 3000IU/day; and those with levels above 16ng/mL may be prescribed between 1000-2000IU/day. Thereafter a maintenance dose of between 1500-2000IU/d or a dose to keep the serum level between 30-36 ng/mL with an upper range of ≥ 60 ng/mL and a toxicity range between 100-150 ng/ml. Vitamin D3 levels should be monitored every 3-6 months to maintain levels between 30-36 ng/mL. The dosages should be multiplied by a factor of 1.5-3 in patients with body mass index >30. [JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr, 2013 Oct 23. [Epub ahead of print] 50292 (4/2014)] Interview PubMed

Crohn's Disease - fatigue, vitamin b1 - 50512

Vitamin B1 (thiamine) between 600 mg/day (60 kg = 132 lbs) to 1,500 mg/day (90 kg = 198 lbs) taken orally in patients with Crohn’s Disease or Ulcerative Colitis with normal blood levels of thiamine and thiamine pyrophosphate showed regression of fatigue. Too much thiamine can cause a reversible tachycardia and sleep disturbance. [Altern Complement Med. 2013 Aug;19(8):704-8. 50512 (11/2014)] Interview PubMed

Crohn’s Disease - Fructo-oligosaccharides

Fructo-oligosaccharides 15 mg/d. [Gut, 2006;55(3):348-55. 44075 (4/2006)] Summary

Crohn’s Disease - Omega-3 fatty acids

Omega-3 fatty acids 2.7 gm/d (EPA 180 mg/DHA 120 mg per capsule; 9 capsules/d). [NEJM, June 13, 1996;334(24): 1557-60. 25051 (1996)] Summary

Crohn’s Disease - Omega-3 fatty acids - 2

Omega-3 fatty acids 3 gms or more per day; reduce omega-6 fatty acids. [Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 2005 Dec;22(11-12):1121-8. 44467/44280 (1/2006)] Summary

Cystic Fibrosis - beta-carotene - 39678

Beta-carotene 20 mg t.i.d. (0.6 mg/kg t.i.d.) lowered plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde. [Acta Paediatr, 2002;91:793-798. 39678 (2003)] Summary Interview PubMed

Cystic Fibrosis - n-acetylcysteine - 50370

N-acetylcysteine may be beneficial in a wide range of conditions with oxidative stress and depleted intracellular glutathione including acetaminophen overdose, diabetic atherothrombosis, cystic fibrosis and contrast-induced nephropathy. It’s effectiveness may be dose-dependent with the degree of glutathione depletion. In acetaminophen overdose dosing has been three consecutive intravenous infusions of 150, 50, 100 mg/kg respectively each over 1 hour and oral and nebulized doses between 700-2800 mg/d. [Pharmacol Ther. 2014 Feb;141(2):150-9. 50370 (6/2014)] Interview PubMed

Cystic Fibrosis - vitamin d - 47329

Vitamin D3 50,000 IU weekly provided better blood levels than vitamin D2 50,000 IU weekly, though both raised levels significantly. [J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2009;94(6):2037-43. 47329 (9/2009)] Summary Interview PubMed

Deafness - Vitamin B1

Vitamin B1 - vitamin B1 100 mg I.V. x 1 week, then 50 mg P.O. b.i.d. then 50 mg/d P.O. as maintenance eliminated the need for transfusions, normalized hemoglobin and platelets, and improved diabetic control in a child born with a thiamine transporter gene mutation. The case was an 18-year-old girl who was born deaf-mute, had diabetes at age 9 months and severe anemia at age 2 years who could only be treated with transfusions for 17 years. There was no improvement in deafness. [Eur J Endocrinol, 2006;155(6):787-792. 45096 (6/2007)] Summary

Delirium - melatonin - 50401

Melatonin 2.5-3 mg taken by mouth at 7:00 p.m. in elderly patients with active medical or surgical conditions at risk for delirium, especially with hospitalization or institutionalization, may help prevent or help manage the delirium. No significant side effects have been noted. [Am J Alzheimer’s Dis Other Demen, 2014 Jun 18. pii: 5[Epub ahead of print] 50401 (7/2014)] Summary Interview PubMed

Dementia (idiopathic) - Melatonin

Melatonin 3-6 mg (fast-release) at bedtime may improve cognitive function. [J Pineal Res, 2007; 43(4): 404-409. 45955 (3/2008)] Summary

Dementia (idiopathic) - Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 - low levels associated with reduced brain volume. B12 levels >300 pmol/L (406.5 pg/ml) may be protective. [Neurology, 2008;71(11):826-32. 46641 (10/2008)] Summary

Dementia (idiopathic) - Vitamin B12 - 2

Vitamin B12 normal ranges should be 600 to 2000 pg/ml. Below 550 to 600 pg/ml deficiencies start to appear in the CSF. Humans are born with serum levels of about 2000 pg/ml, which decline gradually throughout life. [Medical Hypotheses, 1991;34:131-140. 28725 (1998)] Summary

Dementia (idiopathic) - Vitamin B12 - 3

Vitamin B12 250-400 pg/ml - reversed dementia with I.M. B12 treatment .[J Am Geriatric Soc, October, 1996;44(10):1274-1275. 25957 (1997)] Summary

Dementia (vascular) - Arginine

Arginine (L-) 400 mg/tab 2 b.i.d.. [Am J Med, April 1, 2000;108:439. 34839 (2000)] Summary

Dementia (vascular) - Docosahexaenoic acid

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) .72 gm/d. [Lipids 1999;34(Suppl.):S345-S346. 33415 (2000)] Summary

Dementia (vascular) - Ginkgo biloba

Ginkgo biloba special extract Egb 761® 240 mg/d. [Alzheimer's and Dementia, July 2008;4(4): Supplement, T165-T166. 46792 (11/2008)] Summary

Dementia (vascular) - Ginkgo biloba - 2

Ginkgo biloba special extract Egb 761® 240 mg/d. [Pharmacopsychiat, 1996;29: 47-56. 24968 (1996)] Summary

Dementia (vascular) - Vitamin C and E supplements

Vitamin C and E supplements regularly (at least once a week). 88 % less likely to have vascular dementia and 69% less likely to have forms of dementia other than vascular or Alzheimer’s related dementia or mixed forms of dementia. [Neurology, 2000;54:1265-1272. 34890 (2000)] Summary

Dental Caries - calcium, protein, soft drinks, sugar, vitamin d - 50736

Lower calcium intake was associated with higher cariogenic risk and greater severity of oral diseases. Significantly lower calcium intake and 25OHD levels, and significantly higher protein intake, daily consumption of soft drinks, plaque index and sugar intake, were associated with a higher DMFT Index (decayed, missing, and filled teeth). [Clin Oral Investig. 2014 Oct 31. [Epub ahead of print] 50736 (7/2015)] Interview PubMed

Dental Caries - Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG plays a protective role in the development of dental caries (Caries Res, 2001; 35: 412-420)]

Dental Caries - Lactobacillus spp.

Lactobacillus spp. (1.88 x 109 live cells/day: L.sporogens 16%, L.bifidum 12%, L.bulgaricus 12%, L.termophilus 18%, L.acidophilus 20%, L.casei 10%, L.rhamnosus 12%), both in capsules and in liquid form (bottled) increased Lactobacillus spp. in the saliva. Not known if this is cariogenic or anti-cariogenic. [Digestion 2004;69:53-56. 41776 (2004)] Summary

Dental Caries - Medications

Medications - prescribe sugar-free medications versus those with sugar. No sugar-containing medications at bedtime. [Health Visitor, August 1995; 68(8):327-238. 24227 (1996)] Summary
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